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fan Kamala Harris is Communist, why did no one (except President Trump) say it?

2020.10.19 23:05 NamNguyen56 fan Kamala Harris is Communist, why did no one (except President Trump) say it?

fan Kamala Harris is Communist, why did no one (except President Trump) say it?


fan Kamala Harris is Communist, why did no one (except President Trump) say it? On Fox Business Network's "Mornings with Maria" on October 8, President Donald Trump described Democratic vice presidential candidate Kamala Harris (D-Calif.) As a "communist; She has left Bernie (Sanders)! "The president went on to quote Senator Harris 'stance, actually even more extreme than Senators Bernie Sanders' (I-Vt.), Or Elizabeth Warren's (D-Mass.).)
But there are six more convincing evidence to show that, yes, Kamala Harris is indeed Communist.
1 / Left-Left
Parents Harris's parents, her mother Shyamala Gopalan, an Indian cancer researcher and Donald Harris, a Jamaican economist, are both tough leftists.
In the early 1960s, the couple was active in the Berkeley African American Association.
According to a former member, Aubrey LaBrie, “Fidel Castro and Che Guevara are heroes of some of us. ... We talked about black Muslims, the liberation movements going on in Africa, everything. "
The leader of the group, Donald Warden, advised two young African-American Association members Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, who would form the Black Panther party in 1966. The Panthers follow the Maoist philosophy. and support communist China. They serve as role models for today's Black Lives Matter movement.
Years later, the Warden (then known as Khalid al-Mansour) played a role in helping Barack Obama enter Harvard Law School.
In 1975, Donald Harris was recruited into the Stanford University economics department as an open Marxist.
2 / Pro-Communist Boyfriend
After joining the radical student union at Howard University, Kamala Harris returned to the Bay Area to begin his legal career. Harris, 30, has aroused public opinion when dating Willie Brown, 60, a leading member of the California Democratic Party, is about to become mayor of San Francisco.
Brown has helped Harris's career and put her on several board positions, and received a salary of around $ 400,000 over five years, according to San Francisco Weekly.
Brown is a longtime communist sympathizer. For the first time, he was elected to the public office with the help of the American Communist Party's youth. He was awarded the Lenin Prize by Dr. Carlton Goodlett, the owner of a communist newspaper, by the former Soviet government.
A few years after his affair with Harris, Brown still publicly funded the Communist Party's fundraising activities in the Bay Area while serving as mayor of San Francisco.
Today, Brown is considered by many to be one of the best friends of the Chinese Communist Party in the Gulf.
3 / The person was led by Kamala Harris close to the communists
While working as a San Francisco district attorney, Harris advised a young San Francisco activist named Lateefah Simon. After hiring her and helping Simon attend college, Harris introduced his young friend to many influential people in San Franciscans. Today, Simon is president of the left-wing Akonadi Foundation and chair of the Gulf Express Transport (BART) board.
When Harris first met Simon, the young woman served on the board of directors at the Oakland-based Youth Empowerment Center. Every other member of the board - Harmony Goldberg, Adam Gold, Cindy Wiesner and later, Obama Green Jobs Czar Van Jones - were members of the Communist group Maoist "Organizing a Revolutionary Together" ( Standing Together to Organize a Revolutionary Movement) (STORM).
Gold is today a member of the LeftRoots, a group affiliated with the Liberation Road group, which supports the Communist Party of China.
Simon is a close friend of another LeftRoots member, the founder of Black Lives Matter, Alicia Garza.
Harris openly supports the Black Lives Matter and remains close to Simon and Garza. In return, Garza is a longtime friend and colleague of Comrade Alex Tom of LeftRoots - who has close ties to the China Progressive Association and the Chinese Consulate in San Francisco.
4 / Financial sponsors under the Communist
Maya Harris, Harris's sister, is a student activist at Stanford University. She is a friend of Steve Phillips, one of the top Marxist-Leninists in the school and a longtime member of the pro-China League of Revolutionary Struggle group.
According to Phillips
' "Politics Intelligence" blog: "First, let me make it clear that I'm out of the Left. I learned Marx, Mao and Lenin. In college, I organized unity efforts for the libertarian struggles in South Africa and Nicaragua, and I spoke to people who considered themselves communists and revolutionaries ..., and I did. does her research on the Black Panther Party. "
After leaving Stanford in the early 1990s, Phillips directed many of his comrades to the Democrats. He is also married to the Sandler billionaire family, which gives the young revolutionary a significant political influence.
Sandler's money has funded the American Progress Center, ProPublica, and numerous candidates and voting initiatives across the country. In 2008, Phillips spent $ 10 million through his PowerPAC-plus on voter registrations in the southern and southwestern states, helping his friend Barack Obama outdo Hillary Clinton in the election. primary election of the Democratic Party.
In 2013, Phillips helped elect his old Stanford friend Cory Booker to the US Senate from New Jersey. In 2018, he almost put his guardians Stacey Abrams and Andrew Gillum as governors of Georgia and Florida, respectively.
Phillips is a friend of the Harris family and helped Maya Harris' husband Tony West become the deputy attorney general in the Obama administration. He is also the main sponsor of the political career of Kamala Harris.
In 2003, Phillips helped Harris win the election, serving as a San Francisco county attorney. Ironically, she defeated incumbent Terence Hallinan, who was a young communist who helped Willie Brown win her first election.
Phillips' PowerPAC-plus helped Harris win the election, served as California Attorney General in 2010 and then to the US Senate in 2016.
5 / Chief of the Secretariat to the Communist
In the early 2000s, current director at Harris's Karine Jean-Pierre is active with the New York-based Haitian Support Network. The organization worked closely with the pro-China / North Korean Workers' World Party and backed Jean-Bertrand Aristide, the former left-right president of Haiti and his radical Lavalas era.
In April 2004, at the Whitman Theater at Brooklyn University, 2,000 people gathered to listen to a program titled "An Evening with Friends of Haiti: The Truth Behind the Haitian Coup".
The protest was co-chaired by Jean-Pierre and Kim Ives of the Haitian Support Network, along with Pat Chin and Sara Flounders from the Workers World Party.
In May 2004, Jean-Pierre joined a delegation to Haiti with two famous comrades of the World Workers Party, Steve Gillis and LeiLani Dowell.
Around the same time, Jean-Pierre was working for friendly New York City Council member James Sanders. Her duties as part of his reelection campaign included working with the local branch of the highly discredited "community organization" ACORN.
6 / The husband is close to the communist party
Doug Emhoff, Harris's husband of law firm DLA Piper, “boasts nearly 30 years of experience in China and more than 140 lawyers specializing in the 'China Investment Services' branch,” according to National Pulse.
National Pulse continued:
“To facilitate the operations of DLA Piper's China - which has received numerous prestigious awards from the China Business Law Review and Chinese Law and Practice - the company employs one a series of former Chinese Communist Party officials.
“Ernest Yang, who served as the company's Head of Legal & Legal and Co-Head of the International Arbitration Committee, was appointed to the People's Political Consultative Conference of China (CPPCC) in 2013. CPPCC serves as the top advisory committee to the Chinese Communist Party, and Yang was promoted to the agency's Standing Committee in 2019.
“Jessica Zhao, Senior Advisor, served as Deputy Secretary-General of the Commission China International Economic and Trade Arbitration (CIETAC), a government-owned body established by the Chinese Communist Party in 1956. It was developed under the auspices of China Promotion Council. International Trade, 'China trade promotion enhancement government agency.'
Several other senior DLA Piper employees, both Chinese and US citizens, served the Chinese regime. Emhoff quit her job at the company in August, The American Law reported.
7 / Does anyone have background checks?
If Biden is elected president, then within a note, Harris will become the female president of the United States.
If Harris applies for an intermediate job in the Department of Agriculture, she will almost certainly fail the security background check. She owes her entire career to those who agree or actively support the Communist Party of China.
Fortunately for her (and possibly catastrophic for the country), elected office-holders are not subject to a security check.
President Trump said, "If Joe Biden is elected, China will own America."
Biden chose the ideal vice president to help China do this.
submitted by NamNguyen56 to u/NamNguyen56 [link] [comments]


2020.10.19 17:04 azoundria2 Bob The Magic Custodian



Summary: Everyone knows that when you give your assets to someone else, they always keep them safe. If this is true for individuals, it is certainly true for businesses.
Custodians always tell the truth and manage funds properly. They won't have any interest in taking the assets as an exchange operator would. Auditors tell the truth and can't be misled. That's because organizations that are regulated are incapable of lying and don't make mistakes.

First, some background. Here is a summary of how custodians make us more secure:

Previously, we might give Alice our crypto assets to hold. There were risks:

But "no worries", Alice has a custodian named Bob. Bob is dressed in a nice suit. He knows some politicians. And he drives a Porsche. "So you have nothing to worry about!". And look at all the benefits we get:
See - all problems are solved! All we have to worry about now is:
It's pretty simple. Before we had to trust Alice. Now we only have to trust Alice, Bob, and all the ways in which they communicate. Just think of how much more secure we are!

"On top of that", Bob assures us, "we're using a special wallet structure". Bob shows Alice a diagram. "We've broken the balance up and store it in lots of smaller wallets. That way", he assures her, "a thief can't take it all at once". And he points to a historic case where a large sum was taken "because it was stored in a single wallet... how stupid".
"Very early on, we used to have all the crypto in one wallet", he said, "and then one Christmas a hacker came and took it all. We call him the Grinch. Now we individually wrap each crypto and stick it under a binary search tree. The Grinch has never been back since."

"As well", Bob continues, "even if someone were to get in, we've got insurance. It covers all thefts and even coercion, collusion, and misplaced keys - only subject to the policy terms and conditions." And with that, he pulls out a phone-book sized contract and slams it on the desk with a thud. "Yep", he continues, "we're paying top dollar for one of the best policies in the country!"
"Can I read it?' Alice asks. "Sure," Bob says, "just as soon as our legal team is done with it. They're almost through the first chapter." He pauses, then continues. "And can you believe that sales guy Mike? He has the same year Porsche as me. I mean, what are the odds?"

"Do you use multi-sig?", Alice asks. "Absolutely!" Bob replies. "All our engineers are fully trained in multi-sig. Whenever we want to set up a new wallet, we generate 2 separate keys in an air-gapped process and store them in this proprietary system here. Look, it even requires the biometric signature from one of our team members to initiate any withdrawal." He demonstrates by pressing his thumb into the display. "We use a third-party cloud validation API to match the thumbprint and authorize each withdrawal. The keys are also backed up daily to an off-site third-party."
"Wow that's really impressive," Alice says, "but what if we need access for a withdrawal outside of office hours?" "Well that's no issue", Bob says, "just send us an email, call, or text message and we always have someone on staff to help out. Just another part of our strong commitment to all our customers!"

"What about Proof of Reserve?", Alice asks. "Of course", Bob replies, "though rather than publish any blockchain addresses or signed transaction, for privacy we just do a SHA256 refactoring of the inverse hash modulus for each UTXO nonce and combine the smart contract coefficient consensus in our hyperledger lightning node. But it's really simple to use." He pushes a button and a large green checkmark appears on a screen. "See - the algorithm ran through and reserves are proven."
"Wow", Alice says, "you really know your stuff! And that is easy to use! What about fiat balances?" "Yeah, we have an auditor too", Bob replies, "Been using him for a long time so we have quite a strong relationship going! We have special books we give him every year and he's very efficient! Checks the fiat, crypto, and everything all at once!"

"We used to have a nice offline multi-sig setup we've been using without issue for the past 5 years, but I think we'll move all our funds over to your facility," Alice says. "Awesome", Bob replies, "Thanks so much! This is perfect timing too - my Porsche got a dent on it this morning. We have the paperwork right over here." "Great!", Alice replies.
And with that, Alice gets out her pen and Bob gets the contract. "Don't worry", he says, "you can take your crypto-assets back anytime you like - just subject to our cancellation policy. Our annual management fees are also super low and we don't adjust them often".

How many holes have to exist for your funds to get stolen?
Just one.

Why are we taking a powerful offline multi-sig setup, widely used globally in hundreds of different/lacking regulatory environments with 0 breaches to date, and circumventing it by a demonstrably weak third party layer? And paying a great expense to do so?
If you go through the list of breaches in the past 2 years to highly credible organizations, you go through the list of major corporate frauds (only the ones we know about), you go through the list of all the times platforms have lost funds, you go through the list of times and ways that people have lost their crypto from identity theft, hot wallet exploits, extortion, etc... and then you go through this custodian with a fine-tooth comb and truly believe they have value to add far beyond what you could, sticking your funds in a wallet (or set of wallets) they control exclusively is the absolute worst possible way to take advantage of that security.

The best way to add security for crypto-assets is to make a stronger multi-sig. With one custodian, what you are doing is giving them your cryptocurrency and hoping they're honest, competent, and flawlessly secure. It's no different than storing it on a really secure exchange. Maybe the insurance will cover you. Didn't work for Bitpay in 2015. Didn't work for Yapizon in 2017. Insurance has never paid a claim in the entire history of cryptocurrency. But maybe you'll get lucky. Maybe your exact scenario will buck the trend and be what they're willing to cover. After the large deductible and hopefully without a long and expensive court battle.

And you want to advertise this increase in risk, the lapse of judgement, an accident waiting to happen, as though it's some kind of benefit to customers ("Free institutional-grade storage for your digital assets.")? And then some people are writing to the OSC that custodians should be mandatory for all funds on every exchange platform? That this somehow will make Canadians as a whole more secure or better protected compared with standard air-gapped multi-sig? On what planet?

Most of the problems in Canada stemmed from one thing - a lack of transparency. If Canadians had known what a joke Quadriga was - it wouldn't have grown to lose $400m from hard-working Canadians from coast to coast to coast. And Gerald Cotten would be in jail, not wherever he is now (at best, rotting peacefully). EZ-BTC and mister Dave Smilie would have been a tiny little scam to his friends, not a multi-million dollar fraud. Einstein would have got their act together or been shut down BEFORE losing millions and millions more in people's funds generously donated to criminals. MapleChange wouldn't have even been a thing. And maybe we'd know a little more about CoinTradeNewNote - like how much was lost in there. Almost all of the major losses with cryptocurrency exchanges involve deception with unbacked funds.
So it's great to see transparency reports from BitBuy and ShakePay where someone independently verified the backing. The only thing we don't have is:
It's not complicated to validate cryptocurrency assets. They need to exist, they need to be spendable, and they need to cover the total balances. There are plenty of credible people and firms across the country that have the capacity to reasonably perform this validation. Having more frequent checks by different, independent, parties who publish transparent reports is far more valuable than an annual check by a single "more credible/official" party who does the exact same basic checks and may or may not publish anything. Here's an example set of requirements that could be mandated:
There are ways to structure audits such that neither crypto assets nor customer information are ever put at risk, and both can still be properly validated and publicly verifiable. There are also ways to structure audits such that they are completely reasonable for small platforms and don't inhibit innovation in any way. By making the process as reasonable as possible, we can completely eliminate any reason/excuse that an honest platform would have for not being audited. That is arguable far more important than any incremental improvement we might get from mandating "the best of the best" accountants. Right now we have nothing mandated and tons of Canadians using offshore exchanges with no oversight whatsoever.

Transparency does not prove crypto assets are safe. CoinTradeNewNote, Flexcoin ($600k), and Canadian Bitcoins ($100k) are examples where crypto-assets were breached from platforms in Canada. All of them were online wallets and used no multi-sig as far as any records show. This is consistent with what we see globally - air-gapped multi-sig wallets have an impeccable record, while other schemes tend to suffer breach after breach. We don't actually know how much CoinTrader lost because there was no visibility. Rather than publishing details of what happened, the co-founder of CoinTrader silently moved on to found another platform - the "most trusted way to buy and sell crypto" - a site that has no information whatsoever (that I could find) on the storage practices and a FAQ advising that “[t]rading cryptocurrency is completely safe” and that having your own wallet is “entirely up to you! You can certainly keep cryptocurrency, or fiat, or both, on the app.” Doesn't sound like much was learned here, which is really sad to see.
It's not that complicated or unreasonable to set up a proper hardware wallet. Multi-sig can be learned in a single course. Something the equivalent complexity of a driver's license test could prevent all the cold storage exploits we've seen to date - even globally. Platform operators have a key advantage in detecting and preventing fraud - they know their customers far better than any custodian ever would. The best job that custodians can do is to find high integrity individuals and train them to form even better wallet signatories. Rather than mandating that all platforms expose themselves to arbitrary third party risks, regulations should center around ensuring that all signatories are background-checked, properly trained, and using proper procedures. We also need to make sure that signatories are empowered with rights and responsibilities to reject and report fraud. They need to know that they can safely challenge and delay a transaction - even if it turns out they made a mistake. We need to have an environment where mistakes are brought to the surface and dealt with. Not one where firms and people feel the need to hide what happened. In addition to a knowledge-based test, an auditor can privately interview each signatory to make sure they're not in coercive situations, and we should make sure they can freely and anonymously report any issues without threat of retaliation.
A proper multi-sig has each signature held by a separate person and is governed by policies and mutual decisions instead of a hierarchy. It includes at least one redundant signature. For best results, 3of4, 3of5, 3of6, 4of5, 4of6, 4of7, 5of6, or 5of7.

History has demonstrated over and over again the risk of hot wallets even to highly credible organizations. Nonetheless, many platforms have hot wallets for convenience. While such losses are generally compensated by platforms without issue (for example Poloniex, Bitstamp, Bitfinex, Gatecoin, Coincheck, Bithumb, Zaif, CoinBene, Binance, Bitrue, Bitpoint, Upbit, VinDAX, and now KuCoin), the public tends to focus more on cases that didn't end well. Regardless of what systems are employed, there is always some level of risk. For that reason, most members of the public would prefer to see third party insurance.
Rather than trying to convince third party profit-seekers to provide comprehensive insurance and then relying on an expensive and slow legal system to enforce against whatever legal loopholes they manage to find each and every time something goes wrong, insurance could be run through multiple exchange operators and regulators, with the shared interest of having a reputable industry, keeping costs down, and taking care of Canadians. For example, a 4 of 7 multi-sig insurance fund held between 5 independent exchange operators and 2 regulatory bodies. All Canadian exchanges could pay premiums at a set rate based on their needed coverage, with a higher price paid for hot wallet coverage (anything not an air-gapped multi-sig cold wallet). Such a model would be much cheaper to manage, offer better coverage, and be much more reliable to payout when needed. The kind of coverage you could have under this model is unheard of. You could even create something like the CDIC to protect Canadians who get their trading accounts hacked if they can sufficiently prove the loss is legitimate. In cases of fraud, gross negligence, or insolvency, the fund can be used to pay affected users directly (utilizing the last transparent balance report in the worst case), something which private insurance would never touch. While it's recommended to have official policies for coverage, a model where members vote would fully cover edge cases. (Could be similar to the Supreme Court where justices vote based on case law.)
Such a model could fully protect all Canadians across all platforms. You can have a fiat coverage governed by legal agreements, and crypto-asset coverage governed by both multi-sig and legal agreements. It could be practical, affordable, and inclusive.

Now, we are at a crossroads. We can happily give up our freedom, our innovation, and our money. We can pay hefty expenses to auditors, lawyers, and regulators year after year (and make no mistake - this cost will grow to many millions or even billions as the industry grows - and it will be borne by all Canadians on every platform because platforms are not going to eat up these costs at a loss). We can make it nearly impossible for any new platform to enter the marketplace, forcing Canadians to use the same stagnant platforms year after year. We can centralize and consolidate the entire industry into 2 or 3 big players and have everyone else fail (possibly to heavy losses of users of those platforms). And when a flawed security model doesn't work and gets breached, we can make it even more complicated with even more people in suits making big money doing the job that blockchain was supposed to do in the first place. We can build a system which is so intertwined and dependent on big government, traditional finance, and central bankers that it's future depends entirely on that of the fiat system, of fractional banking, and of government bail-outs. If we choose this path, as history has shown us over and over again, we can not go back, save for revolution. Our children and grandchildren will still be paying the consequences of what we decided today.
Or, we can find solutions that work. We can maintain an open and innovative environment while making the adjustments we need to make to fully protect Canadian investors and cryptocurrency users, giving easy and affordable access to cryptocurrency for all Canadians on the platform of their choice, and creating an environment in which entrepreneurs and problem solvers can bring those solutions forward easily. None of the above precludes innovation in any way, or adds any unreasonable cost - and these three policies would demonstrably eliminate or resolve all 109 historic cases as studied here - that's every single case researched so far going back to 2011. It includes every loss that was studied so far not just in Canada but globally as well.
Unfortunately, finding answers is the least challenging part. Far more challenging is to get platform operators and regulators to agree on anything. My last post got no response whatsoever, and while the OSC has told me they're happy for industry feedback, I believe my opinion alone is fairly meaningless. This takes the whole community working together to solve. So please let me know your thoughts. Please take the time to upvote and share this with people. Please - let's get this solved and not leave it up to other people to do.

Facts/background/sources (skip if you like):



Thoughts?
submitted by azoundria2 to QuadrigaInitiative [link] [comments]


2020.10.19 03:23 Helen5808 This is gonna be a thing now

Understand the Context.
The voyage by Christopher Columbus in 1492 that connected the Eastern and Western hemispheres led to the first global trade networks. They provided the framework for historical events for the following centuries.
Establishment of Maritime Empires. Between 1450 and 1750, European states, starting with the Portuguese and Spanish, sought a transoceanic route to Asia. Europeans established trading post empires in the Indian Ocean that
inadvertently brought them into contact with the Americas.
Global Exchanges. Trans-Atlantic trade linked the Americas, Europe, and Africa for the first time. European colonists who wanted sugar and other crops to sell in the global market developed plantations in the Americas. Their desire for laborers fueled the trade in enslaved Africans. Trans-Pacific trade flourished as well. Silver mined in Latin America was the major commodity.
Over time, the transfer of crops, animals, and disease between the Eastern and Western hemispheres, known as the Columbian Exchange, altered life everywhere. The introduction of potatoes, corn, and tomatoes to Europe led to population growth. The introduction of deadly pathogens, such as small pox and measles, devastated the populations of the Americas.
Change and Continuity. Within the context of increasing European influence, regional commerce and established states in Afro-Eurasia continued to flourish. The Mughal, Ottoman, and Qing Empires expanded, creating ethnically diverse states. Across the globe, peasant and artisan labor intensified as the demand for goods and food increased. These developments set the stage for the revolutions that defined the period after 1750.
Technological Innovations.
The sailors, moreover, as they sail over the sea, when in cloudy weather they can no longer profit by the light of the sun, or when the world is wrapped up in the darkness of the shades of night, and they are ignorant to what point of the compass their ship's course is directed, they touch the magnet with a needle which (the needle) is whiled round in a circle until, when its motion ceases, its point looks direct to the north.
- Alexander Neckham (1157-1217).
Essential Question: How did cross-cultural interactions spread technology and facilitate changes in trade and travel from 1450 to 1750?
Although land-based empires were important during this period, various inventions allowed Europeans to venture long distances on the ocean. The magnetic compass, originally created in China for fortune telling, helped steer a ship in the right direction, as described by Alexander Neckham. The astrolabe, improved by Muslim navigators in the 12th century, let sailors find out how far north or south they were from the equator. The caravel, a small, three-masted sailing ship developed by the Portuguese in the 15th century, allowed sailors to survive storms at sea better than carlier-designed ships. Cartography, or mapmaking, and knowledge of current and wind patterns also improved navigation
Demographic pressures pushed Europeans into exploration and trade. As the population grew, not all workers in Europe could find work or even food. Not all sons of the wealthy could own land because primogeniture laws gave all of each estate to the eldest son. In the carly 17th century, religious minorities searched for a place to settle where people were tolerant of their dissent. All of these groups, as well as those just longing for adventure and glory, were eager to settle in new areas. Those who left their homelands in search of work, food, land, tolerance, and adventure were part of a global shift in demographics.
Developments of Transoceanic Travel and Trade
Europe was never totally isolated from East and South Asia. The Indian Ocean trade routes had long brought silk, spices, and tea to the Mediterranean by way of the Red Sea. Islamic traders had long known of land routes from China to the cities of Baghdad and Constantinople and from there to Rome. Then, in the 16th century, more and more Europeans became active in the Indian Ocean, with hopes of finding wealth and new converts as their twin motives.However, Europeans faced competition from Middle Eastern traders based in kingdoms such as Oman. For example, the Portuguese set up forts in Oman but were repeatedly challenged by attempts to remove them. The Omani- European rivalry was one reason for Christopher Columbus's search for a new route to India.
The voyages by Columbus connected people across the Atlantic Ocean.
European traders became go-betweens linking Afro-Eurasia and the Americas.
• From the Americas, they purchased sugar, tobacco, and rum.
• From Africa, they purchased enslaved people.
• From Asia, they purchased silk, spices, and thubarb.
This extensive trade transformed Spain, Portugal, Great Britain, France, and Holland into maritime empires, ones based on sea travel.
Much of this trade was carried out by men. However, in Southeast Asia, Europeans conducted most of their business with women, who traditionally handled markets and money-changing services in those cultures.
Classical, Islamic, and Asian Technology
Western European countries such as Portugal, Spain, and England were developing their naval technology. They were aware of traditions of sailing that went back to the classical Greeks, such as using the stars to navigate. They combined this knowledge with new ideas developed by Islamic and Asian sailors and scholars, which they learned about because of the cross- cultural interactions resulting from trade networks. Al-Andalus, in what is now Spain, was a place where Islamic ideas diffused into Europe.
The leading European figure in this development was Portuguese ruler Prince Henry the Navigator. While he never sailed far enough out to sea to lose sight of land, he strongly supported exploration. He financed expeditions along Africa's Atlantic Coast and around the Cape of Good Hope. With his backing, Portugal explore African coastal communities and kingdoms before other European powers.
Advances in Ideas. As scholars gathered knowledge, they improved the safety of sailing on the ocean. For example, Newton's discovery of gravitation increased knowledge of the tides. As a result, sailors could reliably predict when the depth of water near a shore would be decreasing, thereby exposing dangerous rocks. As people kept increasingly accurate records on the direction and intensity of winds, sailors could sail with greater confidence.
Improvements in cartography also improved navigation. An astronomical chart is any map of the stars and galaxies. Mariners relied on these maps to guide ships' direction, especially before the introduction of the compass, using the skies to help them determine their location. Ancient astronomers in Babylonia and Mesopotamia had created star charts as early as the 2nd millennium B.C.E. Charts by Chinese astronomers date back to the 5th century B.C.E. Charts were also used widely by classical Greek astronomers. Using telescopes to help create astronomical charts began in 1609, and the practice was widely used to map the stars by the end of the 17th century. Astronomers typically divided the charts into grids to help locate specific constellations and astronomical objects.
Advances in Equipment. Several developments in the equipment used on ships made sailing safer and faster than ever. Ships moved adroitly, aided by a new type of rudder, another idea imported from China. The astrolabe, improved by Muslim navigators in the 12th century, allowed sailors to determine how far north or south they were from the equator.
The compass is the primary direction-finding device used in navigation. It works either with magnets or a gyroscope, which is a wheel or disk mounted to spin rapidly around an axis in various directions. Other compasses determine the location of the sun or a specific star. The magnetic compass, originally invented in China, allowed sailors to steer a ship in the right direction. It is the oldest and most familiar. It was discovered by mariners in both China and Europe in the 12th century. This type of compass works as Earth itself acts as an enormous bar magnet. Earth's magnetic field is almost parallel to the north- south axis of the globe, which means that freely moving magnets, such as those in a compass, take on the same orientation.
The lateen sail, or a ship sail in the shape of a triangle, was a pivotal piece of technology. Used by Arab sailors and in the Indian Ocean, it significantly affected medieval navigation and trade. The ancient square sails that preceded the lateen allowed sailing only in a single direction and had to be used with the wind. The lateen, however, could catch the wind on either side of the ship, allowing it to travel in different directions. When used with the square sail, the lateen allowed sailors to travel successfully into large bodies of water, including oceans, for the first time, thus expanding trade routes.
New types of ships also improved trade. By adjusting the ratio of length to width of a ship, adding or reducing the number of masts, and using different types of sails, builders could adapt ships to improve their efficiency. (Connect: Compare the technological advances of the Mongols and Chinese of the 12th and 13th centuries with those in the chart below. See Topic 2.1.)
Three Types of Ships. See graph.
Long-Term Results. The long-term result of combining navigational techniques invented in Europe with those from other areas of the world was a rapid expansion of exploration and global trade. About the only part of the Afro- Eurasia world not affected by the rapid increase in global trade was Polynesia, since it was far removed from trading routes.
The introduction of gunpowder, another Chinese invention, aided Europeans in their conquests abroad. Soon enough, however, sea pirates also used the new technology, particularly the Dutch pirates known as Sea Beggars.
In North Africa and in the trading cities along Africa's east coast, Islam spread rapidly as a result of the growth of the Abbasid Empire, centered in Baghdad, and the activities of Muslim merchants. Interactions among various cultures inside and outside of Africa brought extensive trade and new technology to the continent.
Navigational techniques continued to spread throughout the 17th century. Russia's Tsar Peter the Great visited Western Europe in 1697 to observe military and naval technology. His interest in European technology led him to hire technicians from Germany and elsewhere to help build Russia's military and naval power.
submitted by Helen5808 to u/Helen5808 [link] [comments]


2020.10.15 06:00 pfeifer1982HC FujiFilm - Cynata's First Licensee Of Its Lead Product CYP-001 In GvHD

FujiFilm - Cynata's First Licensee Of Its Lead Product CYP-001 In GvHD
The terms
According to the ASX announcement dated 17 September 2017 the terms are as follows:
FujiFilm Holdings Corporation (FujiFilm) is granted an exclusive, worldwide license to develop and commercialise Cynata Therapeutics (Cynata) lead mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) product, CYP-001, for the prevention and treatment of GvHD in human so Cynata will receive US$3m cash from Fujifilm as an upfront fee. [note pfeifer1982HC: prompting a payment of US$10,000 to Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) as part of the license agreement with Cynata, see below]
o Fujifilm will bear responsibility for all costs of any further product development activities in relation to GvHD, along with responsibility for regulatory submissions and commercialisation.
o The non-dilutive upfront payment of US$3m will lengthen Cynata’s cash runway and support further investment in the upcoming Phase 2 trials in critical limb ischemia (“CLI”) and in osteoarthritis, along with other potential future clinical programs.
o Cynata will potentially receive additional future milestone payments from Fujifilm totalling up to US$43m based on successful attainment of certain industry standard product development and commercial milestones, the first of which is US$2m on completion of the first Phase 2 clinical trial in USA, UK or Japan. Subsequent milestones are completion of Phase 3 clinical trials (US$3m), submission of applications for regulatory approvals (US$12m), acceptance of geographic marketing authorisations and first sales (US$16m) and extending the indication (US$10m). [note pfeifer1982HC: of which 30% will likely be payable to Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) as part of the license agreement with Cynata, see below]
o Cynata will receive a 10% royalty on all future product sales if the licensed product is successfully commercialised in any country in which any licensed patents are granted or pending. o Having sub-licensed certain patent rights licensed-in from the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (“WARF”) in respect of Cynata’s Cymerus™ technology to Fujifilm, Cynata will be required to make a one-off cash payment to WARF of US$10,000. Cynata is also required to pay WARF a mid-single digit percentage royalty on Fujifilm product sales and 30% of other amounts received from Fujifilm, including in respect of milestone payments.
o Both Fujifilm and Cynata have rights to terminate the license under certain conditions such as material breach and bankruptcy and failure to use reasonable efforts to achieve certain specified milestones. The agreement also includes limited mechanisms for potential royalty adjustment on termination of the WARF Head License, entry of a generic competitor or in-licensing third party enabling technology.
• Fujifilm and Cynata will enter into a separate agreement for the supply of product by Cynata for certain future product development activities at cost plus a moderate doubt digit manufacturing margin
• The endorsement by Fujifilm of Cynata’s Cymerus platform supports the continued commercialisation of Cynata’s cell therapeutic products in other indications, including CYP002 for critical limb ischemia (CLI) and CYP-004 for osteoarthritis
To facilitate Cynata’s ongoing partnering efforts certain amendments have been made to the license agreement between Cynata and WARF, particularly in relation to sub-sublicensable sub-licenses under the WARF patents and extending certain interim development milestones, whilst not changing the current milestone for obtaining approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Agency (or an equivalent foreign agency) in 2026.
[The last paragraph provided an explanation on the delay back in March, when the Licence Option was meant to be executed]

A deal that required a lot of patience from investors
In September 2016, FujiFilm and Cynata signed a Non-binding Development and Commercialisation Term Sheet. It anticipated that, under a definitive agreement, Cynata will grant FUJIFILM an option to an exclusive, worldwide licence to market and sell Cynata’s lead MSC product for prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), as well as (a) an option to negotiate a licence for manufacturing those products, and (b) certain rights to Cynata’s proprietary Cymerus™ technology for the prevention and treatment of other diseases.
FujiFilm even provided an earnings projection CYP-001 in GvHD back in their December 2016 presentation. Unfortunately, I can't get my hands on the that presentation anymore, as the FujiFilm website has been re-done since and my original link is now dead.
The much anticipated FujiFilm announcement in January 2017 caused a bit of disappointment amongst investors, as FujiFilm didn't sign a licence agreement, instead FujiFilm and Cynata signed a Development and Commercialisation Partnership Agreement aka a Licence Option Agreement to an exclusive, worldwide licence to market and sell Cynata’s lead MSC product, CYP-001, in the field of prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). As part of that, FujiFilm also took a A$3.97 million strategic equity stake in Cynata.
Over the next two years, FujiFilm wasn't shy of having its representatives talk to various newspapers. It was a bit surreal, as it sounded like they have already taken up the license, when in fact it was "only" an option to take it up.
January 2017, Junji Okada, Director, Corporate VP & GM of Corporate Planning Headquarters and Pharmaceuticals Products Divs., FujiFilm Holdings Corporation, in an interview published in "Weekly Diamond"'s January Edition with the title "FujiFilm pushing into regenerative medical business" (sorry, my links are dead but against a few that article is still available via their website):
"[...]
Get a challenge right to become a main player
We have elemental technologies cultivated with film. In the field of regenerative medicine, there are no companies in the world who have established a firm position yet. As a pharmaceutical manufacturer, we are "chase after". Even if imitating after the major and keeping up, profitability is not good and efficiency is bad. If you go out early in areas where no one is doing, you will gain the challenge of becoming a main player.
We are steadily striking the foundation necessary for regenerative medicine . Mostly it is acquisition. We are holding down all three major elements (cell, medium, scaffold) in regenerative medicine. I think that business can be deployed comprehensively just by regenerative medicine. Then you get inquiries from various places and information comes in, so you can further lead the industry.
- I am aiming for the first domestic company trial in transplant medical treatment using iPS cells in 19 years.
It is the impression that we are finally getting into the stage of business. Since I do it, I want to honor the first domestic. There is also a pride that it is a top runner in the field of regenerative medicine.
[...]
Earn "one-third" in healthcare centering on regenerative medicine
[...]
- The policy of M & A in the future.
Whether there is synergy or not is not important, but it is important. We will continue to focus on focusing areas such as image diagnosis and regenerative medicine.
- Healthcare is currently about 20% to Fujifilm HD sales. If regenerative medicine is going to grow steadily in the future, Fujifilm may be called a "medical company" day.
Other business will grow as well (laugh). I will not say how many years, but I will aim at healthcare to account for about one-third of HD sales."
To avoid altering any facts, I did not make any changes to the spelling, wording etc. What you see is exactly how it got translated using Google Translate.
In September and October 2018 FujiFilm talked to Nikkei Asia, leading to two separate articles to then be published:
Two great articles with lots of information regarding the technology, anticipated timeline/s, market opportunity, Cynata's Phase 1 trial, FujiFilm's plans in the US etc., way too much to quote on here.
Still in October 2018, an article with the title iPS-derived mesenchymal stem cells, next year at the prospect Japan-US clinical trial Fujifilm, etc. was published on nikkan.co.jp stating the following:
"The MSC used in Phase 2 trials is supplied from the United States, but in the future, it is also considering production at Japan Tissue Engineering (J-TEC) of the Fujifilm Group."
Also, in October during an FCDI presentation at The Cell & Gene Meeting on the Mesa, Nick Manuso, Senior Vice President FujiFilm Cellular Dynamics, Strategy and Business Development, had the following remarks on his presentation slides:
"Leading the field of breakthrough cellular therapies using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)
- Phase II - Graft Versus Host Disease with Cynata Therapeutics [...]"
together with a comment of Cynata's CEO Ross Macdonald at the top right corner (1:10 mins). To watch the presentation on YouTube, click here.
Ken-ichiro Hata, Deputy Director BioScience & Technology Development Center, Fujifilm Corporation Japan Tissue Engineering Co., Ltd. (J - TEC), Representative Director and President, for example in December 2018 said the following:
"There are many walls that must be overcome in order to make organs from iPS cells, but research and development of cell therapy using iPS cells is progressing steadily. CDI also supplies iPS cells to the Australian regenerative medical venture in the Fujifilm Group and contributes to the world's first iPS cell clinical trial in the UK. This is to inject a mesenchymal stem cell (* 3) made from iPS cells and treat it for patients with complications that occur after leukemia bone marrow transplantation. And Fujifilm will do the same clinical trial in Japan, as a company in 2019 for the first time. If approval from the country is obtained, I would like to sell it to medical institutions as a formulation."
Also in December 2018, FujiFilm was quoted saying:
Fujifilm announced on Wednesday that it will establish a facility for production of artificial pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) for treatment in Wisconsin State, USA. Investment amount is about 2.5 billion yen. It is intended to accelerate the development of regenerative medicine products using iPS cells and to operate it in FY 2019.
Fujifilm plans to apply for a clinical trial (clinical trial) for obtaining approval of transplantation medicine by iPS cells from the country in Japan during FY 2018. We plan to conduct clinical trials in the United States.
A US subsidiary is set up as a production facility, and introduction of cultivation equipment and so on corresponding to the quality control standards of US authorities. Rapidly develop regenerative medical products in the fields of Parkinson's disease, heart disease, cancer by iPS cells produced. We also assume production contracts from other companies.
In January 2019 FujiFilm mentioned Cynata and its Phase 1 clinical trial in GvHD a total on a total of five pages across their presentation with the title Pharmaceuticals, Bio CDMO and Regenerative Medicine Business:
Source: FujiFilm Holdings Investor Presentation 15 January 2019
Source: FujiFilm Holdings Investor Presentation 15 January 2019
Source: FujiFilm Holdings Investor Presentation 15 January 2019
Source: FujiFilm Holdings Investor Presentation 15 January 2019
Source: FujiFilm Holdings Investor Presentation 15 January 2019
Cynata's unofficial anthem among investors at the time was Beyonce's "If you like it then you should have put a ring on it"...
After the initial "deadline" for the Licence Option Agreement to run out in March 2019 and Doomsday Preppers start hording food and toilet paper preparing for the End of the World as we know it, Cynata extended the Option Agreement (see ASX announcement here and here) to then finally execute it on 17 September 2019 with the terms outlined above (praise the Lord...).

Background on CDI
FujiFilm has entered this space with a BANG the year before (30 March 2015), by announcing to acquire Cellular Dynamics International, Inc.'s (CDI) - a leading developer and manufacturer of fully functioning human cells in industrial quantities to precise specifications - issued and outstanding shares of common stock for US$16.5 per share or approximately US$307 million (on a fully diluted basis). The offer represented a premium of 108% to CDI's closing price on 27 March 2015.
The Story Behind Cellular Dynamics’ Sale to Fujifilm is one of a leader in a newly establised space (more info here), founded in 2004 by University of Wisconsin-Madison professor and stem cell pioneer James Thomson. that has built a steady business manufacturing living human cells in massive quantities. The technology is based on induced pluripotent stem cells: taking tissue from donors, CDI’s scientists coax the cells back to an embryonic-like state, then direct them to turn into desired cell types such as neurons and heart, liver, and retinal cells. The technology has applications in drug toxicity testing, cell banking, and the development of experimental cell-based therapies that could in theory heal or regrow body parts.
Despite showing increasing revenue, CDI was still in the red. With the pressure of having to repay a credit facility mounting and having all other options already explored, it was FujiFilm's opportunity to step in and up with what was deemed a more or less satisfactory offer given the current circumstances.
The acquisition was finalised in May 2015.

The perfect partner
Fujifilm, founded in 1934, has transformed itself into a company covering prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. As a comprehensive healthcare company, Fujifilm therefore saw the revolutionary treatments that regenerative medicine could offer as a key part of its mission.
An important factor in Fujifilm’s decision to enter this field was the company’s extensive portfolio of technologies, many of which seemed applicable to regenerative medicine. One example is photographic film, which was Fujifilm’s core product at the time of its foundation and for many years thereafter. Film is a precision chemical product that integrates color-producing reagents and nearly 100 different chemical compounds in total in an ultra-thin layer just 20 micrometers thick. To produce photographic film requires technologies that control many different chemical reactions on a microscopic scale. By coincidence, 20 micrometers is about the diameter of a single liver cell. Fujifilm’s technologies for controlling microenvironments appeared to have extraordinary potential in the world of regenerative medicine.
Fujifilm also possessed a wealth of knowledge about collagen, a protein that is one of the main components of photographic film. In regenerative medicine, collagen plays a critical role in growing cells and restoring tissues. To fulfill demand for the highest quality photographic film possible, Fujifilm had refined a wide range of collagen-based technologies, including methods for processing and controlling the protein, which is extremely sensitive to such environmental parameters such as moisture and temperature. Fujifilm saw a clear opportunity to leverage its collagen technologies in this exciting new field.
After its acquisition of Cynata's sister company CDI back in 2015, FujiFilm is leveraging world-leading iPSC development and production technologies to create an iPSC bank that comprises iPSCs for use in researching various diseases and conditions, which put them in a unique position to evaluate Cynata's Cymerus™ manufacturing platform as it utilises the very same iPSCs manufactured by their (now) subsidiary CDI through a licensing agreement with Cynata back in September 2014.
Having access to information that is not in the public domain, hence also not available to other companies in this space. Aiming to be recognized worldwide as a leader in regenerative medicine, Fujifilm will continue to move forward with this extremely important challenge and given that they are considering iPSCs to be the key to regenerative medicine, it came as no surprise that FujiFilm was the first one to make a move to become our licensee (CYP-001 in GvHD) in addition to also being the supplier of the iPSC starting material for Cynata's Cymerus™ MSC manufacturing platform. MSCs are among the most frequently used cell type for regenerative medicine with currently over 1,000 clinical trials initiated around the world for a wide range of diseases.
Just like Cynata's approach of developing a therapeutic platform in reverse (see here), FujiFilm positioned itself over the years as a "self-contained" leader in the regenerative medicine sector in general and a pioneer in the iPSC sector in particular by building on their existing photo technology, expanding and continuously transforming it by acquiring factories and know-how needed for any expected future needs, incorporate them in your existing business structure to then leverage on their expertise.
FUJIFILM Holdings Corporation has 317 consolidated subsidiaries as of March 31, 2020.
I'm not going to list all 317 consolidated subsidiaries now, don't worry. But lets just have a look at a few of them:
Japan:
The Americas:
Europe:
Asia & Others:
Feel free to check them out yourself to see that they are all amongst the leaders (if not THE leader) in their space.
That is vertical integration par excellence if you ask me!
Many investors, especially the ones NOT invested in Cynata might say the terms are not that exciting, being able to call a well-connected conglomerate such as FujiFilm with a Market Capital of US$20 billion your partner, has many perks including but not limited to having access to this vertically integrated, in-house regenerative medicine behemoth which also includes a advertising/marketing and distribution machinery "on steroids", that are worth multiples of the actual figures of the Licence Agreement currently in place. Remember, FujiFilm had a vital advantage over other companies in this space due to its unique position as mentioned above.
Although it might take a while for such a heavyweight to move, according to Newton's First Law of Motion, once it moves, it is also more difficult for it to stop.
I'm looking forward to what the future holds!
submitted by pfeifer1982HC to CynataTherapeutics [link] [comments]


2020.09.24 07:00 SteamieBot The Steamie - Thursday 24 September 2020

Weather (Powered by Dark Sky)
Clear throughout the day.
Around 2 to 14 degrees.
Travel
Following a fault with the signalling system between Cambuslang and Newton Lanark the line has now reopened.
Train services running through these stations are returning to normal but some services may still be delayed or revised. Disruption is expected until the end of the day.
Let us help you:Please let us try and help you if you are being disrupted. At the station or on-train:* Speak to a member of staff or use the Help-point (station only).* Listen for announcements.* Information will be displayed on Customer Information Screens.Keep up to date or get in touch on your phone:Twitter: Live updates @ScotRail.WhatsApp: Contact us on WhatsApp.App: Live updates on our app. Phone: Contact Customer Relations.
What's On Today
Fuck all. Go out if you must, but stay safe. Don't be a fanny.
Today in Scottish History
Nothing, apparently!
/GlasgowMarket Digest
Synths, Effects Pedals and Recording Gear
WTS PC components
Looking for: Chest of drawers
Tune of the day
First Aid Kit - The Lion's Roar (Official Music Video) (suggested by TheSeansei)
Picked from 2 eligible links submitted today. Suggest tomorrow's tune.
submitted by SteamieBot to glasgow [link] [comments]


2020.09.19 00:42 lisagreenhouse Gary Michael Hilton, the National Forest Serial Killer, is known to have murdered four people. But his crimes and travels make it hard to believe there weren’t earlier victims. Are there more waiting to be discovered?

Who is Gary Michael Hilton?
Gary Michael Hilton, sometimes referred to as the National Forest Serial Killer, was a drifter who murdered at least four hikers in and around national forests in Florida, Georgia, and North Carolina between 2005 and 2008.
Hilton was found guilty and sentenced to life in prison in January 2008 for the murder of Meredith Emerson, 24. After that conviction, investigators across the country began looking into unsolved cases that were similar to Emerson’s, and Hilton was charged with and found guilty of three more killings. In 2011, he received the death penalty in a Florida court for the slaying of Cheryl Dunlap, 46. In March 2012, he plead guilty to the murders of John Bryant, 80, and Irene Bryant, 84 and a North Carolina court sentenced him to four consecutive life sentences.
Emerson, Dunlap, and the Bryants shared no specific victimology, instead it appears he chose them at random when he needed money. Investigators agree that his were crimes of opportunity, and they believe Hilton may have committed more murders across the southeast United States in the years before his four known victims were killed.
Hilton was born November 26, 1946. He had an unstable home life and varied criminal record that stretched from childhood until he was arrested for Emerson’s murder at the age of 61. In 1959, when he was just 13, Hilton reportedly shot his stepfather in a jealous rage over his mother. His stepfather didn’t press charges, but Hilton did spend some time in a mental hospital after the shooting.
At 17, Hilton joined the army, and he served from 1964 through 1967, including a tour in West Germany. He was honorably discharged in 1967 after he had been hospitalized for hearing voices and diagnosed with schizophrenia.
Hilton was married at least three times, but none of his marriages were long—the longest was just two years. He isn’t believed to have any children. His third wife was a security officer at Stone Mountain Park, a 3,000 acre park near Atlanta that offers camping, hiking, wooded trails, lakes, and family attractions, including the massive peak at its center that is carved with the likenesses of Confederate soldiers.
Hilton loved the outdoors. He hiked, camped, and frequently lived in forests and mountains around the south and southeast United States. He loved dogs, too, and had a dog named Dandy (sometimes reported as a golden retriever, other times described as red in color).
He never had steady employment; after leaving the army, he worked as a chauffeur in Florida from 1970 to 1972, and he was arrested in 1995 for stealing books he was hired to sell from a door-to-door sales company. From 1997 to 2007, he worked off and on handing out advertisements and doing odd jobs for a Gwinnett County, GA, siding company, but he permanently lost that job when he threatened to kill the company owner if he didn’t pay him $10,000.
Hilton also had ongoing legal troubles. He was convicted of a DUI in Florida in 1973; in 1983, he was convicted for carrying an unlicensed gun and a drug charge; he was found guilty of theft and marijuana possession in 1987; and he plead guilty to 21 counts of solicitation in 1995.
Samuel Rael, an attorney and filmmaker in Atlanta, admitted that in 1995 Hilton helped him develop the plot for the movie Deadly Run. The movie is about a man who stalks, hunts, and murders women in the woods, a storyline that has similarities to Hilton’s crimes. Rael had defended him in court multiple times since the mid-1980s for crimes ranging from arson and trespassing to solicitation of false charitable donations. Rael said Hilton, whom he considered a consultant on the project, came up with the idea of the main character releasing women into the woods to be hunted like prey and that he also helped select that cast and found the cabin in the woods near Cleveland, Georgia, where much of the movie was filmed. Meredith Emerson’s remains were found approximately 30 miles from that same cabin 13 years later. Investigators have said that Hilton was not considered a suspect in any murders or disappearances during the time the movie was being filmed.

Confirmed Victims
Victims are listed in the order of their disappearances and murders. However, his final victim, Meredith Emerson, was the first to be linked to Hilton. His implication in her murder helped solve the others.
Irene Bryant, 84, and John Bryant, 80, disappeared after driving 20 miles from their home to hike and look at fall colors in North Carolina’s Pisgah National Forest on October 21, 2007. The couple had been married for 58 years and loved traveling, hiking, and being outdoors. Their active lifestyle meant that they were sometimes hard to reach, and it took time for their neighbors and family to realize they were missing. Their son Bob reported them missing on November 2. He drove from his home in Texas to North Carolina to help search for his parents and discovered their vehicle at a trailhead parking lot. Investigators subpoenaed telephone and financial records and discovered that Irene had tried to call 911 around 4 p.m. on October 21 but the call didn’t go through. They couldn’t confirm whether the call failed due to lack of service or interference by another person. Financial records showed a bank withdrawal from their account at 7 p.m. the day after Irene attempted the 911 call. Security footage at the bank in Ducktown, Tennessee, 25 miles away from their vehicle, showed a slender man man in a hooded raincoat using the Bryant’s ATM card. Investigators couldn’t identify the person, but it was neither of the Bryants.
Irene’s body was found on November 9, covered with leaves and sticks, just 100 yards from where the couple’s vehicle was parked. She had been killed by a blow to the head and her arms and legs appeared to have also been beaten. Investigators speculated that her attacker had lain in wait on the trail or in the woods just beyond the parking lot.
John’s skeletal remains weren’t found until February 5, 2008 when a hunter stumbled across them.
On October 26, 2007, Hilton was stopped by a sheriff’s deputy while trespassing on private hunting land. Hilton tells the deputy he’s a paratrooper on field maneuvers, and, when asked if he’s carrying any weapons, he shows the officer an expandable police baton. The officer checks for open warrants and then lets him go. However, Hilton did have an open warrant for a minor 1972 offense in Miami, and he should have been detained.
In March 2012, Hilton plead guilty to murdering the Bryants, and he admitted to camping out in the parking lot, scouting for victims. Hilton admitted he had kidnapped Bryant from the parking lot, drove him to the Nantahala National Forest, walked him 30 feet down an embankment, and shot him in the head. It’s believed Hilton wasn’t certain he could control both victims at once, so he chose to kill Irene at the location and then use her death to intimidate and scare John into cooperating and giving him the couple’s ATM PIN number.
In the days before the Bryants’ murders, other hikers reported seeing, talking to, and even photographing and confronting Hilton in the Pisgah National Forest in the area where the Bryants were murdered. Along with pleading guilty of ambushing and killing the Bryants, Hilton also plead to robbery and firearms offenses in their case. He again accepted a plea deal to avoid the death penalty and was remanded to serve four additional life sentences consecutively with the life sentence already handed down for Emerson’s murder.
The Bryants are Hilton’s first known victims, although he was sentenced in their cases after being tried for his later crimes.
Cheryl Hodges Dunlap, 46, was a mother of two grown sons and a nurse and Sunday school teacher, She was last seen alive on December 1, 2007. She had gone hiking alone in Apalachicola National Forest in the Florida panhandle just outside Tallahassee at about 9 a.m. Friends reported her missing after she failed to show up to teach her Sunday school class on December 2 or arrive at work on Monday morning, December 3. Three days after she disappeared her car was found with a flat tire, parked on the shoulder of Highway 319 just outside of the national forest. A search of the area revealed nothing of use. However, an investigation into her digital footprint discovered bank withdrawals.
A little over a week after she went missing, authorities released surveillance photos of a man successfully using Dunlap’s ATM card to withdraw money on December 2, 3, and 4, the three days immediately following her disappearance. Police could not identify him because he was wearing a rubber mask, gloves, and hat. Detectives staked out the ATM machine for the next week, but the man never returned.
Dunlap’s decapitated remains were discovered near Bloxham Cutoff Road in the Apalachicola National Forest on December 15 by hunters who noticed the presence of buzzards. Because her head and hands were missing, it took a DNA sample to confirm that the remains were hers.
Hilton was proven to be in the area when and where Dunlap disappeared because a forestry agent had run his vehicle tag number through the police database on December 7. After Dunlap’s body was found, a hunter also reported coming into contact with Hilton in the forest—driving a white van, wielding a knife and appearing disheveled or homeless. The hunter said he’d warned Hilton that the woods was a bad place to be during hunting season. This interaction allowed the hunter to identify Hilton in a photo lineup. A forestry agent had also questioned Hilton on November 17, 2007 and run his white van’s tag number through a database to ensure it wasn’t stolen. On December 28, another forestry agent interacted with Hilton in Osceola National Forest, about 160 miles from where Dunlap was last seen. Those sightings proved Hilton had been in the area before and then left after Dunlap’s murder. The final item of proof was one of Dunlap’s boots, which Hilton was attempting to discard in the dumpster with Emerson’s belongings when he was initially arrested.
Investigators believed Hilton kidnapped Dunlap from the Leon Sinks Geological Area of Apalachicola National Forest, where friends said she had mentioned going to read a book. He likely kept her alive for a few days in order to get money from her ATM card, finally killing her. Investigators say he burned her head and hands in his campfire, then left her vehicle by the road after puncturing the tire with his police baton. There was no physical evidence tying him to the crime, but investigators were able to recover audio tapes on which Hilton had recorded himself talking crudely about women and referencing killing women and hiding things. He said he was a sociopath who could disassociate from the act of murder.
Hilton was indicted on Thursday, February 28, 2008 for Dunlap’s murder, kidnapping, and two counts of grand theft. He was found guilty by a unanimous jury in February 2011 and sentenced to death. He unsuccessfully appealed the conviction.
Dunlap was Hilton’s third known victim; he was sentenced in her case after being tried and found guilty for murdering his last-known victim, Meredith Emerson.
Meredith Emerson, 24, was last seen alive on New Year’s Day 2008, with her dog, a black Labrador retriever mix named Ella. The pair had left home in Buford, Georgia, to hike one of their favorite trails on Blood Mountain. The location is the highest peak in Georgia’s section of the Appalachian Trail and is located on the border of Lumpkin and Union counties inside the Blood Mountain Wilderness and the Chattahoochee National Forest.
Concerned after she didn’t return home, Emerson’s friends and boyfriend reported her absence to local police. She was classified as an overdue hiker. The next day, friends and authorities searched the area where Emerson and Ella had been hiking but did not find either of them. A winter storm moved in that day, and authorities had to halt the search.
After her disappearance made news, witnesses came forward to claim that they’d seen her hiking with an older man, approximately 60 years old with a red dog, on a spur trail that connects the Appalachian Trail to the Byron Herbert Reece Parking Lot. One caller was a former police officer. He reported that while hiking he’d discovered a police baton, water bottles, sunglasses, a barrette, and a dog leash and treats scattered over an area of disturbed and scuffed ground. He had seen an older man with a police baton walking with a younger woman minutes before finding the items, and he recognized the leash as the one the young woman had been holding. At first, he’d thought they were father and daughter, but the scattered belongings and evidence of a struggle concerned him. While there, he talked with another group of hikers who had seen the man hiding in the woods, but they were unable to locate him after a short search. They gathered the scattered items and left them at a local store, but they didn’t call police at the time. The next day after seeing a report on TV about Emerson’s disappearance, the former officer called investigators to report what he’d seen and found the day before.
Also on January 2, John Tabor, a former employer of Hilton’s, called police to let them know Hilton matched the description of the man seen with Emerson on the trail. He said Hilton had called him a few hours before and had apologized for acting erratically and violently toward him, asked him for money, and told him he was near Blood Mountain. He’d asked Tabor to leave him a check at a business Tabor owned, but he never came to collect the check. Investigators noted that Tabor hadn’t called them immediately to inform them of Hilton’s similarity to the suspect or his proximity to the possible kidnapping.
Police also recovered surveillance images of Hilton unsuccessfully attempting to use Emerson’s ATM card. Investigators had hope that Emerson was still alive and they were now sure she was with Hilton, so they disseminated Hilton’s DMV photo to the media.
On January 4, another witness called police to report that he had encountered an older man and young woman camping near a white van. The witness was driving a lawn care truck when he got it stuck in a stream. He asked the older man for help, but he’d refused. The witness said it seemed like the man was trying to keep him away from the van. When the witness called police dispatch to ask for help getting his vehicle unstuck, the man quickly packed up and left the area in a seeming rush.
That same day, Ella was found wandering in a grocery store parking lot in the town of Cumming, Georgia, about 60 miles away from Emerson’s last-known whereabouts. Investigators also discovered bloody clothing, bloody men’s boots, and Emerson’s purse and wallet in a dumpster across the street from the store where Ella was located. A boot, later confirmed to belong to Hilton’s third victim, Cheryl Dunlap, was also recovered from the dumpster.
Later that evening, a witness called 911 to report that Hilton—whom he recognized as the suspect in Emerson’s disappearance from news reports—was at a local gas station cleaning out a white van. Police arrived and prevented Hilton from using a vacuum cleaner and bleach on the van’s interior; they also discovered bloody clothing and blankets he had attempted to discard in the gas station trash receptacles. Blood in the vehicle was later matched to Emerson, and Hilton was charged with her murder.
During almost five hours of interrogations, Hilton admitted that Emerson fought back against him when he attacked her, yelling and using her martial arts skills to fend him off (she’d earned a blue belt in aikido and was posthumously awarded a black belt). He said that she almost got away, but that he was finally able to subdue her when she lost her footing and stumbled. He said he’d chosen to attack her because she was a woman, and that they’d hiked together for a while before she outpaced him. He then stopped and waited for her down the trail, planning to rob her of her ATM card when she was returning to her vehicle. He admitted to taking Emerson from the parking lot in his van, returning at her request a few minutes later to pick up Ella, who had initially been left behind. He drove her to multiple banks and unsuccessfully attempted to use her ATM; police believed she was intentionally giving him wrong PIN numbers to buy time. Unfortunately, no one at the banks or law enforcement noticed the failed transactions or attempted use of Emerson’s ATM cards until January 4.
Eventually Hilton gave up and drove Emerson to a secluded location where, for three days, she continued to give him incorrect ATM PIN codes in an apparent attempt to give rescuers time to find her. Hilton told investigators that he tired of waiting for the correct PIN number, so he told Emerson he was taking her home; however, he admitted that he knew he couldn’t release her since she’d seen his face and vehicle and knew so much about him. Instead, while she was tied to a tree, he hit her over the head repeatedly with a car jack handle to kill her, and then he decapitated her. He covered her body with leaves, then drove to another wooded area more than an hour away, where he discarded her head. He said he was unable to kill Ella and decided to let her go. Disturbingly, in that same interview, when asked about whether it was hard for him to kill Emerson, Hilton stated, “It was hard … you gotta remember we had spent several good days together.”
Hilton offered to lead investigators to Emerson’s body if they’d agree to remove the death penalty option. An autopsy confirmed Hilton’s story: her cause of death was officially listed as blunt force trauma to the head, and she’d been decapitated postmortem.
He plead guilty to Emerson’s murder on January 30, 2008, and he was sentenced to life in prison with the possibility of parole after 30 years.
The case was in the news again in 2010 when a writer for Hustler magazine submitted a request for crime scene photos for use in an article about Emerson’s kidnapping and murder. A judge blocked the request, preventing the Georgia Bureau of Investigation from releasing "any and all photographs, visual images or depictions of Meredith Emerson which show Emerson in an unclothed or dismembered state.” The Georgia House also passed The Meredith Emerson Memorial Privacy Act, preventing “gruesome crime scene photos from being publicly released or disseminated.” The Act, House Bill 1322, stops the release of all images in which victims of crimes appear “nude, bruised, bloodied or in a broken state with open wounds, a state of dismemberment or decapitation.”
Hilton’s involvement in Emerson’s kidnapping and murder drew the attention of investigators in other states. While she is believed to be his last victim, the successful investigation into her case resulted in his guilty pleas and sentencing for three other murders. A series of other unsolved crimes is also being investigated for ties to Hilton.

Possible Victims
Melissa Witt, 19, disappeared from the parking lot of a local bowling alley in Fort Smith, Arkansas on December 1, 1994. On January 13, 1995, her body was found by hunters in a rural area of the same county from where she disappeared. She was naked, and her remains were near a rock that’s been described as headstone-like. Her clothing was never located. Some investigators believe that there are similarities between Witt’s disappearance and death and those of Hilton’s known victims.
Judy Smith, 50, is considered a possible victim of Hilton’s because her remains were found near the location where Hilton would bludgeon Irene Bryant a decade later. Smith was last confirmed to have been seen by her husband, Jeffrey, at a Philadelphia hotel on April 10, 1997. The couple flew from their home in Newton, Massachusetts to Philadelphia the day before so that Jeffrey could attend a work conference. After arriving at the airport, Judy discovered she had left her identification at home and would not be able to board the plane. She returned home to retrieve her ID and took a later flight, meeting Jeffrey at their hotel. She planned to go sightseeing while Jeffrey was attending the conference, and Jeffrey confirmed she’d been alive and in their room that next morning. That evening, after the conference meetings had ended for the day, Jeffery could not find Judy. He searched for her and tried to report her missing around midnight, but investigators told him he needed to wait 24 hours.
During the ensuing investigation, there were a number of sightings of a woman matching Judy’s description in and around Philadelphia, several of which seemed to describe a person experiencing psychological problems or acting disoriented or disturbed. Other possible sightings were of a woman matching Judy’s description riding the bus, shopping at a mall, and sitting outside a gourmet grocery store. The Smith family found some of the descriptions and sightings credible.
On September 7, 1997, about five months after Smith was last confirmed to have been seen, hunters in the Pisgah National Forest about 9 miles from Asheville, North Carolina discovered scattered bones around a shallow grave. Some clothing and personal effects were also located. Cut marks and punctures found on the ribs and clothing suggested the victim had been stabbed. The remains were confirmed to be those of Judy Smith. Strangely, the clothes she was discovered wearing were not any she was known to have owned or reported by witnesses, and the family has no explanation for why or how she got to or was in Asheville. Later reports found that people in the Asheville area had seen Judy or a woman who resembled her. The sightings were deemed credible, but no one claimed to have seen Judy with anyone else. Money and jewelry was found near Judy’s body and belongings, so robbery was ruled out as a motive. Investigators came to believe Smith traveled to Asheville voluntarily, but they’re unsure of why or what happened to her while there. Hilton has been suggested as a possible suspect, but investigators have not publicly linked him to Smith’s case or named as a suspect.
Levi Frady, 11, was abducted from Little Mill Road in Forsyth County, Georgia, on October 22, 1997. The next day his remains were found partially submerged in a rainwater-filled pit in Dawson Forest Wildlife Management Area in Dawson County, Georgia. He had been shot three times, once in the chest and twice in the head. Investigators consider Frady’s case open and active. Some have hinted Hilton is considered a suspect, but he has not been publicly named.
In April 1998, Jason Knapp, 20, disappeared. He was a student at Clemson University, and he was last known to have been seen by his roommate at around 10:30 p.m. on April 11, watching a movie at their residence. His vehicle was found on April 21 at Table Rock State Park in Pickens, South Carolina. The area is about 30 miles from the university and is very rugged. Investigators found a Wendy’s restaurant receipt inside the vehicle dated April 12 at 1:30 p.m. It is believed he drove to the park on April 12. He had also withdrawn $20 from his bank account that day; his bank cards, including an ATM card, were never found. The area around his vehicle showed no signs of struggle or foul play, and it is unknown whether he drove to the location alone. Searchers canvassed the area around his vehicle for two weeks and found nothing of interest.
Patrice Endres, 38, disappeared from her hair salon in Cumming, Georgia, between 11:30 a.m. and noon on April 15, 2004. She vanished during a gap of about 12 minutes between clients. The front door of the salon was unlocked and the cash register was empty, but there was money in her purse. Her lunch was in the microwave and her vehicle was parked at the salon.
Her skeletal remains were found in December 2005 behind a church about 10 miles from her salon. A woman came forward with a description of a man in a white van parked in front of the salon, but she later recanted the story. Serial killer Jeremy Brian Jones admitted to killing Endres and dumping her body in Sweetwater Creek in Douglas County, but authorities ruled him out as a suspect after her remains were found 70 miles from that location and when he couldn’t provide any additional information that wasn’t in the public record. Authorities looked at Hilton’s possible involvement, but they say he is no longer considered a suspect. There is no information as to why investigators have ruled him out.
Rossana Miliani, 29, lived in Miami, Florida, and disappeared while vacationing in Cherokee, North Carolina. She was last confirmed to have been seen at about noon on December 7, 2005, in the hotel where she was staying. She called her father and told him she was going hiking on the Appalachian Trail. Some reports say she was spotted in Bryson City, NC, where she rented a storage space, shortly before disappearing. Miliani is reported to have bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, but no details are available about whether she was on medication or if she was experiencing any issues at the time of her disappearance.
On the two-year anniversary of her disappearance, a clerk at a local store read an article about Miliani and called investigators to report that she’d sold a backpack or bag, possibly a sleeping bag according to some sources, to Miliani and a man who claimed to be a traveling preacher who visited campsites around the Appalachian Trail. According to the clerk, the man was about 60 years old, had hair greying at the temples and may have been wearing a hair piece because his hair looked unusual. The clerk claimed that Miliani appeared to be nervous.
A private investigator working on the case released a sketch of the unidentified man in June 2009. The man resembles Hilton, and he’s considered a possible suspect. Neither Miliani nor any of her belongings, including luggage and a camera, have been found; no money has been withdrawn from her bank account since her disappearance, but a deposit was made on December 31, nearly three weeks after her disappearance. No further information is available about that deposit.
Some sources say Hilton is known to have stolen and unsuccessfully tried to use Miliani’s bank card, but I was unable to find official corroboration of those reports.
A fisherman found the remains of Michael Scot Louis, 27, dismembered and stuffed in plastic garbage bags, in the Tomoka River at Ormond Beach, Tomoka State Park, Florida on December 6, 2007. His torso and legs were recovered, but his head has never been found. Louis was last known to have been seen on November 21 or 22, 2007, but when his remains were found 16 days later, the autopsy estimated he had only been dead for two to seven days. It’s unclear where he was or who he may have been with during the days he was unaccounted for. Days after his disappearance, his Firebird was found parked unusually far from his apartment in the apartment complex’s parking lot in South Daytona, Florida, with the keys still in the ignition and his dirty laundry and guitars inside.
Hilton was officially ruled out as a suspect after DNA testing did not implicate him, but some thought he should remain on the list as a potential suspect. In January 2018, Nelci Tetley, 67, was arrested for shooting to death and dismembering her then-boyfriend, Jeffrey Albertsman, 55. It was discovered that she had possibly also dated Louis, although she denied knowing him or having a relationship with him, and she’s been named as a suspect in his case.
University of Georgia student Cayle Bywater disappeared from Athens, Georgia on December 29, 2007. She was reported missing after neighbors became concerned when her dog was seen running loose outside her home. Meredith Emerson would be kidnapped three days later from Vogel State Park, about 80 miles north of Athens.
On January 11, Bywater’s body was found in an Athens lake. An autopsy listed drowning as her cause of death, but there’s disagreement about how she came to be in the lake. There were no traces of illegal drugs or alcohol in her system, but she had been prescribed medication to treat a mental disorder, reported by some agencies as bipolar disorder. The autopsy also found a previously undiagnosed heart defect, but that could not be proven to have played a part in her death.
A photograph taken by an undisclosed individual the day she was last seen alive shows Bywater in Memorial Park walking her dog on leash. Witnesses claim to have seen someone matching Bywater’s appearance walking a dog in the park near the lake where her body was later found, and some said she appeared to be disoriented or chasing the dog. No signs of foul play were discovered on her body or at the scene, but her family insists she did not wander off or commit suicide. In a news article dated January 8, 2008, (https://www.savannahnow.com/article/20080108/news/301089882) her family was concerned that she may have been kidnapped by someone who saw her in a disoriented or confused state and took advantage of the situation. That same news article mentions the kidnapping of Meredith Emerson by Gary Michael Hilton but quotes an investigator as saying the local police department and Georgia Bureau of Investigation did not consider the cases related at that point. It’s unknown if Hilton is now or was ever considered a suspect in Bywater’s case.
Are there more? There are dozens of unsolved cases of missing and murdered people in the areas where Hilton was known to or may have traveled or lived. Someone put together this Google Map detailing known and possible victims of Hilton: https://www.google.com/maps/d/viewer?mid=1v-4PyOHDjE17GhkF6ofEvFWtLes&hl=en&gl=us&ie=UTF8&oe=UTF8&msa=0&z=5&ll=34.77220536527494%2C-83.37685848300629 . It’s a very interesting rabbit hole. I’m unsure who created the map or what criteria they used to include possible victims. If anyone on this sub has information about the creation of this map, please let me know and I’ll include more details.

What Don’t We Know? Discussion and Theories
Knowing what we do about Hilton and the crimes for which he was convicted, it’s hard to believe that Emerson, Dunlap, and the Bryants are his only victims. Investigators have pointed out that it’s rare for a serial killer to start killing in their 60s, and Hilton’s crimes seem to be the work of a confident killer. His lack of victimology—targeting victims based on opportunity rather than sticking to a certain type of person—and his large geographic footprint, transient lifestyle, lack of family and friends, and remote hunting grounds all point to the possibility that he’s been active for a lot longer than the short spree of four known victims.
There are so many missing people and unsolved homicides in the southeast corner of the United States that it’s not hard to think Hilton may be responsible for some of them.
What are your thoughts or theories?

A note of thanks: u/cspach2005 invited me to do this write-up on Hilton for an upcoming podcast on www.disturbedpodcast.com. They covered my previous write-up on Timothy Bindner (https://www.reddit.com/UnresolvedMysteries/comments/g2mh3i/hes_been_a_suspect_in_the_disappearances_of_at/) in this podcast, https://www.disturbedpodcast.com/bindne, so I was thrilled to contribute again. I’ll add a link to the podcast episode on Hilton once it’s done.

Resources:
Park Predators podcast about Hilton: https://parkpredators.com/episode-1-the-hunte
YouTube video of Georgia Bureau of Investigation interview with Hilton (4.5 hours): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R9Tw1iejmzc
ThoughtCo blog from July 14, 2019 about Hilton’s crimes: https://www.thoughtco.com/the-gary-michael-hilton-case-971046
Murderpedia entry for Hilton, including text from news articles: https://murderpedia.org/male.H/h/hilton-gary-michael.htm
Timeline of Hilton’s life and crimes: http://prairiechicken.blogspot.com/2008/02/gary-michael-hilton-timeline.html
Strange Outdoors article from January 23, 2018 about Hilton and his victims: https://www.strangeoutdoors.com/mysterious-stories-blog/2018/1/22/gary-michael-hilton-the-hiker-murders
CNN article from 2008 detailing how Hilton helped make a movie about a serial killer: https://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/03/13/hilton.movie/index.html
Wikipedia article: Murder of Meredith Emerson: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murder_of_Meredith_Emerson
March 23, 2008 article detailing Hilton’s confession and Emerson’s fight to survive: http://www.nbcnews.com/id/23769881/ns/us_news-crime_and_courts/t/killer-says-female-hiker-fought-him-end/
March 11, 201 article about judge barring release of crime scene photos in Emerson’s case: http://www.cnn.com/2010/CRIME/03/10/meredith.emerson.photos/index.html
August 2012 opinion piece by the journalist who requested Emerson crime scene photos explaining why he did so: https://www.ajc.com/news/opinion/why-requested-slain-hiker-crime-scene-photos/2PmN2O3oTCOJKq7mBuvgfL/
Wikipedia article about the Judy Smith case: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judy_Smith_homicide
Rossana Miliani Charley Project profile: http://charleyproject.org/case/rossana-miliani
Article from December 17, 2007 about remains found in Florida, possibly linking them to Cheryl Dunlap: https://abcnews.go.com/US/story?id=4010778&page=1
Article from February 28, 2008, announcing Hilton’s indictment in the case of Dunlap: http://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/02/28/hilton.indictment/index.html
March 27, 2012 article about Hilton pleading guilty to the Byrants’ murders: https://www.blueridgenow.com/article/NC/20120327/news/606022032/HT
May 17, 2008 article detailing John Bryant’s autopsy findings: https://www.blueridgenow.com/article/NC/20080517/News/606047031/HT
January 4, 2018 article about the Bryants: https://www.ajc.com/news/local/tragic-end-for-unique-couple/PzAHQbeBqHLPzNjGei0nAJ/
December 23, 2007 article about memorial service for Michael Scot Louis: https://www.news-journalonline.com/article/LK/20071223/news/180117745/DN
January 24, 2018 article about Nelci Tetley’s arrest, possible implication in Louis’ death: https://heavy.com/news/2018/01/nelci-tetley-accused-dismembering-killing-boyfriends/
January 13, 2017 article commemorating the 22nd anniversary of Melissa Witt’s unsolved disappearance and murder: https://www.5newsonline.com/article/news/local/outreach/back-to-school/melissa-witts-body-found-22-years-ago-investigation-still-open/527-5556593c-22df-4077-b6c3-e7fd7f041f33
Jason Knapp’s Charley Project profile: http://charleyproject.org/case/jason-andrew-knapp
April 4, 2010 article about Patrice Endres’ disappearance and murder: https://www.forsythnews.com/local/crime-courts/husband-seeks-closure-in-cold-case/
Google Map detailing known and possible victims of Hilton: https://www.google.com/maps/d/viewer?mid=1v-4PyOHDjE17GhkF6ofEvFWtLes&hl=en&gl=us&ie=UTF8&oe=UTF8&msa=0&z=5&ll=34.77220536527494%2C-83.37685848300629 (I did not create this map, nor do I know who did or what criteria they used when choosing which possible victims to include. I’ll gladly edit the post to include that information if someone knows more details about the map’s creator or creation.)
submitted by lisagreenhouse to UnresolvedMysteries [link] [comments]


2020.09.17 10:53 ErCiccione Getmonero.org updated: New blog posts, improved accessibility, new FAQ, multiple updates and much more

I'm rethinking the structure of these updates. For now i moved new merchants to a dedicated section, to give them more visibility. If you have suggestions, please let me know.

Updates to Getmonero

These are the major changes to Getmonero.org since my last update:
Note that I only included in the list major changes that users can be interested to. Many more changes have been implemented, you can see a more complete overview and the complete list of commits on GitHub.

New merchants

These are businesses which accept Monero recently added to the 'Merchants' page. For the complete list visit https://www.getmonero.org/community/merchants/.
Note: we list these merchants for convenience, we don't do any vetting. We only check that the websites actually accept Monero and are not obvious scams. Do not use these services without first making your own researches about them.
AUGET (#1143) French brand of scented candles https://auget.paris/en/
XenPods (#1179) E-cigarette supplier https://xenpods.com.au
Cockbox (#1137) It's a Tor-friendly, privacy-oriented VPS provider https://cockbox.org/
xChange.me (#1139) Fully anonymous cryptocurrency exchanger https://xchange.m http://xchangen24yn24b6.onion/
DV Chain (#1147) Cryptocurrency OTC desk https://dvchain.co
Newton (#1148) Canadian cryptocurrency exchange https://newton.co
CryptoWoo Monero Plugin (#1156) Gateway for WooCommerce users https://www.cryptowoo.com/
If you know a business which accepts Monero who is not listed, let us know and we will add it to the 'Merchants' page. To add a merchant, open an issue on the repository and fill up the template.

We need contributors willing to work on the website!

Contributors willing to help with the website are always welcome. You are encouraged to join the #monero-site chatroom (on Freenode, Matrix and MatterMost) to stay up to date and participate to the development. It's possbile to contribute to the development of the website in several ways:
  • Translate! It's possible to translate the main parts of the website through an user-friendly graphic interface: Weblate. You don't need any particular experience, except speaking a second language, but make sure to read the guide you find at the top of the page.
  • Resolve an issue! There are many open issues only waiting for contributors to work on them. Keep an eye especially on the issues labelled "⛑️ contributor needed" , which are mostly documentation changes or easy issues which don't require deep technical knowledge. If you would like to help with one of those, but you are scared by the fact that you need to navigate the repository, feel free to contact us and we will manage to get you started.
submitted by ErCiccione to Monero [link] [comments]


2020.09.13 01:20 Spleen_McQueen Series of Theories Part 4: Kendrick's Mission

Part 1: It's levels to it
Part 2: Kung- Fu Kenny/ Gemini/ Two Lives
Part 3: "I put on repeat, Kanye's touch the sky!"

Part 4: Kendrick's Mission

RECAP:
We’ve established several ideas that run through Kendrick’s discography in the previous posts. Number one was “levels” and how Kendrick has alluded to numbering his projects and a finality in his work at level ten. The second post was about how Kendrick has always had Kung-Fu Kenny by his side, that he has always fought an internal battle and how that duality reflects on the entire world. I also talked about the idea going further and his duality becoming a second life. The third post highlighted the recurring imagery of planes, ufos and the sky as well as Kendrick comparing himself to an alien or angel. I concluded that most of these ideas were about reaching the top, the peak of the industry and reaching another plane of existence.
INTRO:
In this post I’ll be researching what Kendrick’s purpose is and what he plans to do once he reaches the top. As I’ve said, he is trying to reach the top/ sky/ clouds and perhaps he already has, figuratively. Here, I’m trying to figure out exactly what Kendrick is trying to do with this power, what he plans to teach the world. Kendrick is a part of our new generation and he knows he has to do his part in trying to make this world a better place to live. This is his movement and it's called HiiiPower.
So I’ll be highlighting anything that mentions Kendrick’s purpose/ mission/ plan.... what he intends to do to change the world. I’ll also be mentioning moments where Kendrick alludes to changing things, pushing boundaries as it builds onto the legitimacy of this theory.
Let’s begin.
Note: It gets spicier at Level 4.

Minor City Hub Threat/ Level 1

And it takes a young nigga like me to push the limitNo gimmick, this is real homieI wake out of my sleep, sweat drippin' off my face and cheekI swear to God, death callin' for me
-TRACK 12
At 16 he is already saying he is going to push the limit. He mentions Death is calling for him, we will see more of that throughout.

Mapped out the whole game to reroute it‘Cause look here boo you fucking with a championK Dot the don, moving the blocks you onTaking a spot of shawn, I'm on top your ownIndustry remember me, cause I so crazy
-PUT THAT ON SOMETHING
Kendrick wants to change the music industry.
I got some plans, to stack riches
Own 76′s like a Philadelphian
You don't know but now I'm focused like camera lens
-BIGGIE
Focused on getting rich.
You wanna witness the livest nigga existin'Then come and pay me a visit, you have to pay for admissionI'm on my mission to conquer my competition
-GO DJ
Before he can change things, he has to establish himself as the best. You have to pay to visit him/ aka pay for his music.

Training Day/ Level 2

Where the pump at
Thinking of a master plan
Mothafucker Im a master mind
Im a 18 year old dollar sign
Im a one man tragedy
Im Columbine
Shit you already know what im about
-One Shot Kill
So Kendrick’s already got a plan in mind… He says he is a one man tragedy but then doubles down and says he is Columbine. Which is actually a two man tragedy. This links up with the Kung-Fu Kenny post and the idea of him having two lives.

Let them sell his soul
Put his body on retail
If we do dirt
And you tell
We gon’ put you under dirt
He was a good person
He was down to earth but now he down to earth
Chillin with the worms and the insects his brother gon’ be next
His mother gon’ be after him kill the family tree
If they fuckin with him and that him is me
-One Shot Kill
So here Kendrick is basically saying that he is going to sell his soul and put himself up to sell (his music). Like the last lines I highlighted, Kendrick alludes to his eventual death.

When the lights get dark
And everybody quiet, know its my part
I might start a riot
The main event
- Blame God
Later on, I'll talk about a possible controversial action that Kendrick might commit.

“When I do it, it won't be nothing right after I'm done
When I ruin niggas' careers, put you niggas in tears
Get you pom poms, you better off, cheer for me”
- BEST RAPPER ALIVE
Again, part of his mission is to destroy his competition.

This business got too many villains
Superman is back
The cape ain't red, it's black
That's a trench coat
And the note for your information if we was dead this reincarnation
Watch your heads
-Never Die
The business is the music industry and Kendrick is here to save it. The reincarnation builds on my second post about his two lives.

I am the truth, no lie about it
Bring my testimony when I walk in that booth
Walking the thin line between love and hate, I defend mines
Join them when it comes to their crunch time, I never fold
I love pressure, that's why I apply so much on niggas thinking they better
I am a clutch shooter, I am a sharp shooter
And it's great enough to hear the butterfly moving
- PROTOTYPE
Kendrick says he is the truth, hopefully he can bring the truth to the world as well. The pressure line builds on his constant drive to rise to the top. Last line could be a giveaway that Kendrick had a loose idea of To Pimp A Butterfly.

I know I'm walking the path of greatness, no compass
Not Atheist, but the bars reside with Satan
- I FEEL IT
Kendrick knows he’s doing what he must but also saying that the raps he writes are sinful. Could be a shot at the nature of the industry or the idea that he must “write his wrongs.”

Maybe I give you the funk
George Clintion bring by the sentence
like I got a english major in it
- GOOD MORNING AMERICA
“Now if I give you the funk, you gon’ take it....We want the funk!” -King Kunta
More possible evidence to show that he has these things planned.

C4/ Level 3

With a bible and a reverendI use my mouth as a weaponBullets rip through your mid section
- Phone Home
Kendrick is weaponizing his lyrics, using them as a tool. The bible has lessons to show us just like each of his albums.
Show me where your fans is so they can see the real
I'm sick and electrifying, that's double ill
Me feel like me will be a legend like Will was a legend
But I'm not an actor, put that in my will
-Phone Home
"Tryna be a fucking legend, the man of mankind" - HiiiPower

Kendrick Lamar EP/ Level 4

Now everybody just bow to the greatness, or die in the matrix
Your hereby dating, my destiny's waiting
My itinerary is very hectic
I break records on every record, I'm truly reckless
-Thanksgiving

I'm live, come to the harvest, welcome the artist
Whose lyrics out of the orbit, more than the hardest rapper
To hit the market and market myself as a shooting target
With offers that got me up in these offices often
Boo-yaa, who ya? No one, I've done situated myself, I ain't lying
Be sure to be friend cause my foes die five times
The good kid from the mad city
Holding a cereal box instead of a Glock
In a 1992 Cadillac that I got from my pops
Transmission slipping, but I ain't tripping, swallow my pride
-Thanksgiving
Kendrick is here to bring us the best lyrics in the game, to infiltrate the offices in tall towers and solidify himself as the best. I mentioned this before but “foes die five times” could be them dying from each of his albums, from section.80 to his next one. GKMC was already on his mind here. Transmission slipping could also be a reference to the common "phone" theme in his music.

Vanity, they say that it can damage me
So do I really want it?
If I didn't, I guess I'm a cool cocaine connect
That means I'll be frontin'
Cooking in a laboratory, hoping I can tell a story
That the whole world can feel, like the ones that came before me
Knowing that I'm misunderstood
So I gotta get my point across like a snitch would
-Let Me Be Me
He’s coming to the terms here that he must give in to the vices of the industry. He then states that he’s planning to tell a story that everyone can understand. I think he intends to do that and already has to an extent… but I think the full picture/ story will be shown with his next album.

Give me vanity, give me Kurt Cobain sanity
Give me a city where Channel 7 newscasters cameras be
Give me horror like Amity, no, give me the charts
And if you ever renege, I'll still give you Kendrick Lamar, this is me
And that's love
-Is It Love?
Kenny is asking for Kurt Cobain sanity alluding to more “suicidal weakness”. He is asking for all the attention so he can talk to the world. Even through all this he will still give us his true self and the most important message, love.

Malcolm X mind state, if I raise the crime rate
It's a legitimate reason why
I put on repeat Kanye's "Touch the Sky"
But I'll be looking past that I'm tryna touch God
My heart to the heavens, the rebel of the reverend
Y'all married to the game well I'm 'bout to crash weddings
I put a lot of pain in the shit I write
If you going through something, this the shit you recite
This is bigger than life, this is Kendrick Lamar
This is Jimi Hendrix guitar on tour, bonjour, I mean war like that!
Yeah, straight like that
-Celebration
He’s here to cause some chaos, to fuck up the music industry (the game) and to give us something to listen to when in pain. This is bigger than life...

When I kick it and pump mine, I've got to be a prophet
I've gotta make a profit big enough to have a thirty pound wallet
-Thanksgiving
In order to become a prophet he’s also gotta make that profit to have a large enough voice.

I found myself losing focus at a Sunday service
Embarrassed so I start questioning God, "What is my purpose?"
He said to live the way he did, that's all he want from me
Spread the word and witness, he rose on the first Sunday
-Faith

And I'm the God MC, join my diocese
Free your mind, don't mind society
And finally, everyone got their own problems
Everything is subject to change like broken dollars
-P&P
Join his movement, his secret society...

Overly Dedicated/ Level 5


But little did they know, I’m tryna' change the rules
That we’ve been confined to, so the corporate won’t make decisions
Uppity bitches, handling business
Killing our dreams, stealing our vision
The Heart Pt.2
Since he’s not happy with the industry, he’s gotta change it himself.

Have you ever felt like, like you never get life?
Like you never did right, sort of like a black sheep?
Tryna get away from the world's stereotype
Barbed wire got a barricade on your destiny
-Barbed Wire
Kendrick probably feels like he’s going against the world trying to accomplish his dream.

What is HiiiPoWeR?
HiiiPoWeR is the way we think, the way we live
See it’s known today that the human race is nothing
No morals, no standards
What we’re about to do is raise the level of expectations
No, you don’t have to have a lot of money
You don’t have to be rich
But you will be rich in mind and spirit
Some say it’s as big as a crew, some say it’s as big as a gang
HiiiPoWeR, we stand for it as if it’s as big as a religion
-Cut You Off
HiiiPower’s mission statement. The lines “My heart is rich, my heart is famous” from GOD. suggest that he has reached that goal himself, now it’s time for him to help us become rich in mind and spirit. (Which he has already imo)

Sometimes we lose focus, planning our own demise
Forgetting the big picture and making it wallet size
So to what is important in my life, I apologize
I promise to stay faithful, focused and sanctified
We all get distracted, the question is
Would you bounce back or bounce backwards? Would you not know
How to act or take action? It’s just a part of life
And if your vision’s impaired, you probably lose it all tonight
-Growing Apart (To Get Closer)
Kendrick seems to foreshadow his own downfall a lot and I think that downfall is represented in DAMN. as the album starts with life being taken. Also DAMN. represents mainstream music more than any of his other albums, hence, “making it wallet size,” as Kendrick is focused on making money in DAMN. In the end he still keeps himself faithful and focused to learn what he must do to better himself.

I'll make an album that'll put a smile on Malcolm
Make Martin Luther tell God I'm the future for Heaven's talent
No tarot card reading; I'm foreseeing you niggas vanish
Not only from the rap game, I'm including the planet
-Ignorance is Bliss
His next album could be the one to put that smile on MLK. After he does this his competition will be gone, off the EARTH.

Or everything getting shot, for nothing
Leave you in shock, coughing up blood and mumbling
Watch, the plans of a young man sponsor
-ROTC

But lately, I've been thinking 'bout taking chances to brighten
My future financially, so please don't be mad at me
I gotta do what I gotta do, no shit
So I tell my nigga front me, let me put it on the strip
Then give it back when I think about the consequence, shit
-ROTC
Kendrick knows he has to go commercial to have the finances he needs for his family. He knows there are consequences to doing this.

And if our record never break, I still won’t break my promise
I promise to keep it honest
Secret society all we ask is trust
-The Heart Pt.2
"It's a secret society
All we ask is trust (All we ask is trust)
All we got is us
Loyalty, loyalty, loyalty" He’s keeping it real to the end no matter what.

And all we lack is communication like service sucks
The people scared of annihilation when Kingdom Come
-The Heart Pt.2
There are other mentions of phones throughout his music and the new music video behind the scene picture enlighten us on its meaning in the future. Dissect Podcast has guessed that it’s him trying to connect to God and his family and I agree that it could be that.

Section. 80/ Level 6


Fire burning inside my eyes, this the music that saved my life
Y'all be calling it hip-hop, I be calling it hypnotize
Yeah, hypnotize, trapped my body but freed my mind
What the fuck are you fighting for? Ain't nobody gon' win that war
My details be retail, man, I got so much in store
-Fuck Your Ethnicity
I believe the hypnotize line means that he believes his music can change the minds of others. And that it can free one’s mind. His details, his life, are retail (at the store) as he puts his life into his music.

So don't you mind how much the cost is, penny for my thoughts
Everybody, please hold up your wallets
Yeah man, I'm the mailman, can't you tell, man?
Going postal, never freeze up, when I approach you
That's starstruck and roast you, oh my
HiiiPower
-Fuck Your Ethnicity
Kendrick says he is the mailman, akin to the upcoming line “Im just a messenger." A messenger of God. He’s saying that you will be starstruck when he approaches because he is coming from the sky... as a star. “Every n***** is a star.” This also lines up with my previous post of him reaching the sky.

I'm just a messenger, yeah, I know life's a bitch, get the best of her
Put them 3's up, they notice that we up, HiiiPower
And the power in the people and if they don't believe us
They'll die
Wizard
-Fuck Your Ethnicity

In the daily superstition that the world is 'bout to end
Who gives a fuck? We never do listen
'Less it comes with a 808 (A melody and some hoes)
-ADHD
Kendrick knows the power of music. He will try to use his own music to bring some change.

As I open this book and then burn up some of this reefer
My plan is to figure out the world and escape all my demons
I'm dying inside, I wonder if Zion inside the heavens
-Kush & Corinthians
Kendrick is trying to escape his demons, which he kinda did in DAMN as he dissected all his wickedness and weaknesses. He is trying to better himself and become the man he needs to be.

To the meaning of life, what's my purpose?
Maybe this Earth is ain't a good place to be
How far is heaven? Let's see
Is it in the clouds like they said it would be?
I wonder when I die will he give me receipts?
I wonder will the eyes of the Lord look at me?
-Kush & Corinthians
Kendrick is trying to find his purpose and has figured out that the world and its pleasures aren’t the best. In DAMN we hear the words “WHAT HAPPENS ON EARTH STAYS ON EARTH.” As Kendrick figuratively dies in DAMN he is leaving Earth and going up to heaven to figure out his judgement.

Come to our show, you can see the diversity
Unify the people, they gon' peep it universally
We might not change the world
But we gon' manipulate it, I hope you participatin'
-Ab-Soul’s Outro (Ab-Soul)
This is basically another mission statement of the hiiipower movement. To unify. They are going to try to manipulate the culture and industry to achieve this perhaps.

Started HiiiPower because our generation needed a generator
In a system meant to disintegrate us
And all we do is assist them
We're not victors, we're victims
The bigger picture isn't developed yet
-Ab-Soul’s Outro (Ab-Soul)
Another Ab-Soul line. Stating that we are all cogs in a system. Hiiipower and TDE might be trying to expose that idea to the world. The big picture will be seen as time progresses… maybe it will be seen/ heard with Kendricks next project. As an interview from 2018 suggested, Kendrick might be writing long-form. As the interview asks itself what themes are recurring we here are bringing them to light and analyzing them to see what this long-form story can be about.

You know what all the things have in common?
Only half of the truth, if you tell it
See I spent twenty-three years on the earth searching for answers
'Til one day I realized I had to come up with my own
I'm not on the outside looking in
I'm not on the inside looking out
I'm in the dead fucking center, looking around
You ever seen a newborn baby kill a grown man?
That's an analogy for the way the world make me react
My innocence been dead
-Ab-Soul’s Outro
Throughout his music and life, Kendrick is looking for the truth, his purpose. He is looking at it from every angle and he is ready to bring that knowledge to the people.

If you don't leave with nothing else tonight,
you will leave with knowing yourself
You will leave knowing that you represent
something thats bigger than all of us
Our family
-Ab-Soul’s Outro

Visions of Martin Luther staring at me
Malcolm X put a hex on my future, someone catch me
I'm falling victim to a revolutionary song, the Serengeti's clone
-HiiiPower
So here we have Kendrick saying that the greatest of black leaders are influencing him in his life. Just as they fell, Kendrick might also fall, hence him asking someone to catch him… as he falls victim to bringing a revolutionary song. Any leader of a revolution puts themself in a vulnerable state. Kendrick knows that so in order to survive this revolution he also needs to form a migration. The Serengeti region in Tanzania is home to one of the largest migrations.

Enough to drive a man insane, I need a license to kill
I'm standing on the field full of land mines
Doing the moonwalk, hoping I blow up in time
Cause 2012 might not be a fucking legend
Tryna be a fucking legend, the man of mankind
-HiiiPower
Kendrick knows the industry is tough and that he to blow up in stardom soon as he is hoping to become “the man of mankind.”

And everything on TV just a figment of imagination
I don't want plastic nation, dread that like a Haitian
While you mothafuckas waiting, I be off the slave ship
Building pyramids, writing my own hieroglyphs
HiiiPower
Kendrick is building his own religion and stories.

I mean the shit is, Huey Newton going stupid
You can't resist his HiiiPoWeR
-HiiiPower
Another comparison to a black leader. This time the co-founder of the Black Panther party. For him to say that this movement is “Huey Newton going stupid” means that his ambitions are greater.

GKMC/ Level 7

They say conversation rule a nation, I can tell
But I could never right my wrongs
'Less I write it down for real, P.S
-Poetic Justice
Perhaps Kendrick is trying to lead that conversation. He knows he has has to write down all wrongs in his music, which he essentially has.

Every time I write these words they become a taboo
Makin' sure my punctuation curve, every letter here's true
Livin' my life in the margin and that metaphor was proof
I'm talkin' poetic justice, poetic justice
If I told you that a flower bloomed in a dark room
Would you trust it? I mean, you need to hear this
Love is not just a verb, it's you lookin' in the mirror
Love is not just a verb, it's you lookin' for it, maybe
-Poetic Justice
He’s saying that what he says isn’t accepted by the industry and world usually as he spits the truth and keeps it real more than most. He lives his life outside the mainstream and is here to bring justice with his words. Even though he is from a dark place, he is as beautiful as a flower… he questions out trust in him since he is not from a great place. In the end he says Love is not just a verb but something that you can find in yourself. I think that the message of love might be the ultimate message of Kendrick’s, akin to many religions and such.

All my innocence while ignorin' my purpose to persevere
As a better person; I know you heard this and probably in fear
-Good Kid
His mission is to become a better person, as he has said before… his mention of fear is interesting as in FEAR he states:

“Searchin' for resolutions until somebody get back
Fear, what happens on Earth stays on Earth
And I can't take these feelings with me, so hopefully they disperse
Within fourteen tracks, carried out over wax
Wonderin' if I'm livin' through fear or livin' through rap
Damn”
You could maybe break this down as him trying to become a better person by letting go of the feelings he lays out on DAMN and leaving the Earth. As FEAR continues his cousin says that he must return to the original commandments to not feel chastised.

Mass hallucination, baby
Ill education, baby
Want to reconnect with your elations?
This is your station, baby
-Good Kid
Most media is trash. If you wanna hear the truth and find happiness, this might be music for you.

I blow up every time we throw up a record
Depending on what you expecting, I'm sure it's bigger than your religion
Perfected by niggas that manifested music to live in
-Compton
Kendrick knows he gets bigger and levels up with every record. As the music oprogresses TDE has created music to withstand generation and to live through.

A smart man if I keep my feet planted
To the earth 'cause the people that hurt can understand it”
-Now or Never
what happens on earf….

For you to hear Kendrick persevere
Defenses I feel relentless
Ambition with a clear vision
Takin' off I ain't takin off these Pistons
I'm takin' off on the inner me - you're distance
Came across me, how much it'll cost me
To get you out my business
I said a planet is a short term goal, no sky is the limit
-Now or Never

To Pimp A Butterfly/ Level 8


I said Hiiipower, one time you see it
Hiiipower, two times, you see it
Hiiipower, two times, you see it
Conversation for the entire nation this is bigger than us
-Grammy 2016 performance (untitled 05)
His first big mention of HiiiPower since his Section. 80 days.

I can attempt to enlighten you without frightenin' you
If you resist, I'll back off quick, go catch a flight or two
But if you pick destiny over rest in peace
Then be an advocate, tell your homies especially
To come back home
-Momma
His message includes advocating going back to one’s roots.

I can see
Your defense mechanism is my decision
Knock these walls down, that’s my religion
-These Walls
Kendrick’s religion, his movement and mission is to knock out the walls of the industry.

It's such a shame they may call me crazy
They may say I suffer from schizophrenia or somethin'
-Blacker the Berry
I don’t know if he has done something yet that would make people say this but I think he could be foreshadowing something in the future. Or it could be about the last couple lines of the song.

Once I finish this, witnesses will convey just what I mean
Been feeling this way since I was 16, came to my senses
-Blacker the Berry
He made his first mixtape at 16. Has he been formulating his story all this time?

This plot is bigger than me, it's generational hatred
It's genocism, it's grimy, little justification
-Blacker the Berry

Dreams of reality's peace
Blow steam in the face of the beast
Sky could fall down, wind could cry now
Look at me motherfucker I smile-
-I (live)
Kendrick have a dream!”

Finna run into a building, lay my body in the street
Keep my money in the ceiling, let my mama know I'm free
Give my story to the children and a lesson they can read
And the glory to the feeling of the holy unseen
Seen enough, make a motherfucker scream, "I love myself!
-I (single)
This is the basis of this post. He is here to give a story, to teach us lessons. One of the biggest lessons is to learn to love yourself. He says that he will run into a building and lay his body on the street in the future to free himself… this is something I’ll be talking about in the next post.

Let these words be your Earth and moon, you consume every message
As I lead this army, make room for mistakes and depression
-Mortal Man
This. This. This. Even though you consume his message and understand it, its ok to still make mistakes.

When shit hit the fan, is you still a fan?
When shit hit the fan—
(one two, one two)
When shit hit the fan, is you still a fan?
When shit hit the fan, is you still a fan?
-Mortal Man
Kendrick seems to be untrusting that people will take his words seriously… and from what he has alluded to, his actions. Will he do something that might make him a controversial figure?

You wanna be remembered that delivered the message
That considered the blessing of everyone
This your lesson for everyone, say;
-Mortal Man
“I prophesied on my last song, you laughed at me” Kendrick says in The Heart Part 4 two years after the release of TPAB. Mortal Man is basically a cliffhanger, he ends up trying to find out the answers with Tupac but is left hanging, leading to DAMN where he has to win the battle within himself before he is ready to escape his demons and finally deliver the message of God.

Wings begin to emerge, breaking the cycle of feeling stagnant
Finally free, the butterfly sheds light on situations
That the caterpillar never considered, ending the internal struggle
Although the butterfly and caterpillar are completely different
They are one and the same
-Mortal Man
He is trying to tell us that everyone has an internal struggle that reflects in the world. The good and the bad go hand in hand. When you know this, you have the ability to grow and heal. Maybe the world and society as a whole can do the same.

DAMN./ Level 9


And Nazareth gon' plead his case
The reason my power's here on earth
Salute the truth, when the prophet say
-DNA

Tell me when destruction gonna be my fate
Gonna be your fate, gonna be our faith
Peace to the world, let it rotate
Sex, money, murder—our DNA
-DNA
Kendrick is saying that the world rotates around sex, money and murder, leading to our demise. As we have seen, Kendrick wants to change the status quo. “Peace to the world” could be him saying goodbye to it. Also another allusion to his eventual death.

I can feel it, the phoenix sure to watch us
I can feel it, the dream is more than process
I can put a regime that forms a Loch Ness
I can feel it, the scream that haunts all logic
-FEEL
Kendrick is putting together a movement, a religion, a team that will form a Loch Ness, or rather a myth, a story. This is in line with a lot of my other analysis of previous lyrics in the post.

It’s a secret society
All we ask is trust (All we ask is trust)
All we got is us
-LOYALTY
He needs to trust his team and the people around him. The HiiiPower movement is part of TDE’s dna and each other is all they've got in the crazy journey they’ve gone on. As I pointed out before he has mentioned the secret society before.

I promise to keep it honest
Secret society all we ask is trust”- The Heart Part 2
Loyalty, loyalty, loyalty
Loyalty, loyalty, loyalty
10-4, no switchin' sides
-LOYALTY
He’s telling other members of TDE and his cause that there is no going back. That they have to stay loyal to him.

How they look at me reflect on myself, my family, my city
What they say 'bout me reveal if my reputation would miss me
What they see from me would trickle down generations in time
What they hear from me would make 'em highlight my simplest lines
-FEAR
I think he is going to give us and the future generations something that will last forever.

Fear, what happens on Earth stays on Earth
And I can't take these feelings with me, so hopefully, they disperse
Within fourteen tracks, carried out over wax
Searchin' for resolutions until somebody get back
Fear, what happens on Earth stays on Earth
And I can't take these feelings with me, so hopefully they disperse
Within fourteen tracks, carried out over wax
Wonderin' if I'm livin' through fear or livin' through rap
Damn
-FEAR
So far we have established that his plan is to persevere and become a better person. In these lines he says that he can’t take these feelings with him as he is probably leaving this Earth to become that better person. He is leaving his past life and leaving it with the music. I believe that a new Kendrick will emerge in the next record. The Butterfly with beautiful wings.

All my innocence while ignorin' my purpose to persevere
As a better person; I know you heard this and probably in fear” -Good Kid
For the cause, I done put blood on sword
Everything I do is to embrace y'all
Everything I write is a damn eight ball
Everything I touch is a damn gold mine
Everything I say is from an angel
-GOD
He’s bringing us the word of God, ya’ll.
Conclusion:
So with this post, we were looking for a plan/ mission in Kendrick’s music. The point of all this is to connect all his discography to a larger narrative. Well what's the end goal?
Well there are a couple things. First off, Kendrick wants to reach the top, get rich (something we've established int he last post) and break down the walls of the music industry to change how things are done and change expectations… effectively destroying his competition. His mission also includes bettering himself and escaping his demons which he has effectively done in DAMN. I believe. The last big part of his plan is to bring a revolution/ movement to the world. Something that he alludes to as he says “I’ll make an album that’ll put a smile on Malcolm.” We can gather that Kendrick believes he is here to deliver a message to the world, something that could heal the whole generation if we listen.
Now, my theory is now that Kendrick has figuratively been killed on DAMN and left his feelings on this Earth, he is ready to reach the clouds/ heaven in order to talk to God and become the best person he can be. Once he has done that he can effectively help bring change to the world with his story.
I’d like to believe that this revolutionary song/ album will be the next one since DAMN seemed to be a cliffhanger of sorts. Kendrick delved to the darkest pits of himself in that album, he “wrote his wrongs.” He won his internal struggle. Now he can help the struggle the world faces as a whole. In my eyes, Kendrick has already helped out the world, but all these lyrics point to something greater.
With all this in mind, I will be expanding more on the “death/ downfall” of Kendrick in the next post. His music is filled with a ton of foreboding about his death and destruction like we even saw in this post. But something that has not been talked about is HOW he will “die."
If you read all this thank you for taking the time. It will only get even crazier from here on out, but as you can see I do not conjure up claims/ theories without the supported evidence/ lyrics.
Part 4.1: I Am
PART 5: Kendrick's Fall to Death
submitted by Spleen_McQueen to KendrickLamar [link] [comments]


2020.09.12 18:46 Darthfuzzy Megathread: Tropical Storm/Hurricane Sally

What is Damp May Never Dry!

This thread has been updated as of 3pm on 9/14
A storm is in the gulf and might be headed our way. As such, it's time for a megathread!
In order to make it easier and provide current information to individuals, please keep the conversations surrounding the storm to this thread. We are trying to consolidate the more serious conversations/information to this thread. It is highly recommend that you sort comments by new given the changing environment
For the time being, memes and funny-ish posts can be standalone posts. This is subject to change depending on how the situation evolves. Despite all the humor surrounding it, please take this event seriously and make plans based upon your needs.
Below is some general information/advice, but should not be taken as official recommendations. Please listen to local/national authorities in determining your next course of actions. I will try to update this post with current information when I can.
Once the storm gets closer to landfall, we will switch from this standalone post to the /TropicalWeather live thread as it's a great resource to get up to date information on the storm.
P.S. If you believe something should be appended/amended to this post, please let me know and I'll be happy to consider it.

What is happening?

Hurricane Sally is off the SE Coast of Louisiana and is anticipated to keep moving NW towards the Louisiana/Mississippi Gulf Coast over the next 48 hours. The storm is projected to reach hurricane force winds before making landfall sometime between very late Monday night/Tuesday morning. Most models are now predicting a Cat 2-3 landfall.
This storm is not necessarily going to be a huge wind concern - but due to the slow moving nature of the storm, this is expected to be a major rain event with up to 10" anticipated over the next week.
As of 2:40pm on 9/14, the storm has moved slightly more east and we're expecting an Gulfport/Biloxi landfall. We're still not out of the woods yet, but it looks like we might get some western rain bands (as dry as the western side looks). Expect the worst, hope for the best.

Where can I get more information on projected paths, evacuation notices, and general preparation information?

As always, we recommend paying attention to local and national media forecasts. Here are some official government links for you to monitor:
And some local news sources as well:

I'm a weather junky and I need my fix, what do you recommend?

Again, please take advice of your local and national government when making decisions. However, like you, I like knowing what the Euro, GFS, UKMET, HMON, HWRF, COAMPS and Navy models are all doing at all times. For these people:

Should I evacuate?

Please refer to the above local/national section when making your evacuation plans. Every person's situation is different. Please begin making preparations 3-4 days out. I will attempt to monitor and post evacuation updates below, but please refer to this article by WWLTV for more up to date information:
Mandatory Evacuations (As of 9/13):
Voluntary Evacuations (As of 9/13):

Cat 3 then flee, otherwise I'm staying.

Cool. Good For You! Some people aren't so lucky and can't afford to stay. However, here's some general advice for those of us who are new to those whole hurricane thing:

What should I buy?

/TropicalWeather has a fantastic mega-thread on this that I am stealing. I highly recommend visiting this link and making sure that you have all of these things in your household.
Also pop-tarts. All the pop-tarts. Brown sugar for life though.

How much alcohol should I stock up on?

Yes.

What about public transportation? Will it still be operational?

While a lot of people don't have reliable alternative transportation, always make sure you have a plan. In general, you shouldn't expect public transport to operate during a hurricane. Don't rely upon it. Make plans to move to a safe location or a shelteevacuation center prior to the storm.
Should you need evacuation notices and/or assistance, please review the New Orleans Regional Transit Authority's website for further information on public transportation and and out of the city in the event of a mandatory evacuation.
Update as of 9/13 from RTA:
In preparation for expected impacts of Hurricane Sally to the Gulf Coast region, the New Orleans Regional Transit Authority will suspend all bus and streetcar service beginning at noon on Monday, September 14th. Ferry services will be suspended after normal operations on Sunday, September 13. Services will remain suspended until further notice.

What schools will be closed?

Schools will likely be closed the day before the storm. Depending on the extent of the damage and various other factors (power, water, etc.) it's unknown for how long the schools will be closed for.
It's recommended that you monitor your local parish's school district websites for up to date information on school closures. That being said, we'll post information as it becomes available. WWLTV tends to have a good up to date listing that's available here. Most private institutions abide by the local Parish's closures, but please refer to your specific school for up to date information.
For universities, please refer to your university's individual emergency guidance.
Orleans Parish
Jefferson Parish
St. Tammany Parish
Plaquemines Parish
St. Bernard Parish
Lafourche Parish
Terrebonne Parish
St. Charles Parish

Sandbags?

There is a complete list available from WWLTV. I will be publishing some of the major parishes below.
Orleans Parish:
Sandbags will be available beginning 8am on Sunday for Orleans Parish Residents:
St. Bernard Parish:
Self sandbagging will be available Sunday morning beginning at 8 a.m., going on until sand runs out. Residents can fill their sandbags at the following locations:
Plaquemines Parish:
Beginning at 10 a.m., parish-wide sandbag locations will be open, but residents should bring their own shovels and only take what they need. Bags will be provided. Residents can fill their sandbags at the following locations:
St. Tammany Parish:
St. Tammany Parish Government will open six self-service sandbag locations beginning Sunday. All locations will have sand and bags provided. Residents are asked to bring their own shovels in case all shovels provided are in use. residents are asked to limit the number of sandbags to 15 per vehicle. There will be someone on-hand to help the elderly and/or disabled at each location.
The locations will be open Sunday 12 p.m. to 6 p.m. and Monday 7:30 a.m. to 6 p.m.

Can you sharpie this situation away?

Neither NOAA nor FEMA recommends this. It doesn't work.

What is Damp May Never Dry!

submitted by Darthfuzzy to NewOrleans [link] [comments]


2020.08.25 02:00 TopOfTheBot Top Posts and Comments of the Day

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Click here to view the post. ● 112,534 Upvotes ● Posted: 24/08/2020 at 03:16:40 UTC

Most Downvoted Posts of the Day

This section is currently being worked on.

Most Upvoted Comments of the Day

IMPORTANT NOTE: This section may be not be accurate as it is under development. Currently this only gets the most upvoted top-level comments from the most upvoted posts today.
First Place
Excessively thick pith is caused by a nitrogen to phosphorous imbalance. How are you fertilizing? What's the soil like where the tree is planted?
posted by dfranks44 on /funny
Click here to view the post. ● 25,181 Upvotes ● Posted: 24/08/2020 at 04:24:11 UTC
Second Place
“Look Tom it’s that girl whose poster you had up!” “ShhhhhHHhhHhHhhhH!!!!!”
posted by bloodysundaystray on /pics
Click here to view the post. ● 15,693 Upvotes ● Posted: 24/08/2020 at 12:37:22 UTC
Third Place
hahaha he still looks like he is hiding all kinds of spoilers.
posted by xenophon57 on /pics
Click here to view the post. ● 15,264 Upvotes ● Posted: 24/08/2020 at 10:49:36 UTC
Fourth Place
You all seriously have changed my life, because of the positive response to my first post the game was discovered by xbox and I got the honor of being in the summer games showcase pre show. I owe a lot to this community... seriously thank you. `My name is Joe and Song of Iron is a solo passion project of mine. Think INSIDE but if the kid was a viking in the land of Nordic gods. I have a long way to go but the journey has been amazing so far and I cant wait to keep pushing to the end. ` if you want to know more about the project the [songofiron.com](https://songofiron.com) site has links to wishlist and all the social media fun. ` Thanks again!`
posted by ABiggerBear on /gaming
Click here to view the post. ● 14,747 Upvotes ● Posted: 24/08/2020 at 14:30:23 UTC
Fifth Place
“Dad, Emma Watson is coming over, don’t be weird or obnoxious” `“Sure thing son”` Dad:
posted by showandmel on /pics
Click here to view the post. ● 5,450 Upvotes ● Posted: 24/08/2020 at 12:13:02 UTC

Most Downvoted Comments of the Day

This section is currently being worked on.

Most Gilded Posts of the Day

IMPORTANT NOTE: This section may be not be accurate as it is under development.
First Place
As a server, I tense up every time I get a black table.
posted by SilverFoxCrosby on /TrueOffMyChest
Click here to view the post. ● 20,506 Upvotes ● 3 reward(s). ● 1 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 1 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 24/08/2020 at 11:57:07 UTC
Second Place
On saving his sister from a dog attack, “If someone had to die, I thought it should be me.”
posted by jab116 on /pics
Click here to view the post. ● 122,346 Upvotes ● 3 reward(s). ● 1 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 1 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 15/07/2020 at 01:55:25 UTC
Third Place
TIFU By Giving A Homeless Man My Last $50...
posted by -_-fenneko-_- on /tifu
Click here to view the post. ● 13,018 Upvotes ● 3 reward(s). ● 1 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 1 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 24/08/2020 at 17:10:03 UTC
Fourth Place
After 6 months homeless & jobless. I now have a new apartment, car and a job in a call center. And I did it on my own. So proud of myself.
posted by itsamejay on /MadeMeSmile
Click here to view the post. ● 195,456 Upvotes ● 3 reward(s). ● 1 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 1 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 22/08/2020 at 02:40:07 UTC
Fifth Place
I found KayCyy’s Brother 😃
posted by -LouisVuittonDon- on /WestSubEver
Click here to view the post. ● 1,265 Upvotes ● 3 reward(s). ● 1 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 1 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 24/08/2020 at 20:41:48 UTC

Most Gilded Comments of the Day

IMPORTANT NOTE: This section may be not be accurate as it is under development.
First Place
I'm worried they won't
posted by TempAsst on /politics
Click here to view the post. ● 1 Upvotes ● 3 reward(s). ● 1 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 1 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 24/08/2020 at 20:35:07 UTC
Second Place
Or at least crawl over to the handicapped space.
posted by Horribunny on /holdmyfeedingtube
Click here to view the post. ● 4,161 Upvotes ● 2 reward(s). ● 0 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 1 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 23/08/2020 at 18:47:55 UTC
Third Place
Dani get your dusty weird ass shoes off of the couch you monster
posted by sjb5138 on /BigBrother
Click here to view the post. ● 10 Upvotes ● 1 reward(s). ● 0 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 0 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 24/08/2020 at 23:58:11 UTC
Fourth Place
In addition to what others have said, it's also the nature of nuclear bombs. They have several phases in how they work. The initial explosion deals damage, but to a pretty small area (relatively speaking). There's an initial radiation burst with that, but this is also relatively short range. The reason is that most of the radiation that causes damage is attenuated over relatively short distances. `Alpha radiation (helium nucleus of 2x protons + 2x neutrons) VERY QUICKLY grab 1 or 2 electrons from whatever they pass by, becoming stable (and thus not harmful radiation) anymore; Helium is probably the most stable element in the universe. Alpha radiation isn't harmful to Humans from outside exposure. The reason is, it can't even get through your dead skin layer without being neutralized. Even a thin layer of clothing will block it. Famously, Alpha radiation is blocked by a piece of paper. (The danger comes in if you touch something that contains or is emitting it, then eat/drink something, some of it can get on your fingers then down your throat and into your stomach, and there's no dead skin layeclothing there to protect your sensitive tissues.)` Likewise, Beta radiation (electrons) are typically gobbled up quickly by any passing atom or molecule with a decent electronegativity. More penetrating than Alpha, it can still be stopped by normal clothing. Same thing about ingestion applies here. This is why in radiation sites, they always say \"No eating, drinking, smoking, or dipping.\" `So that leaves two other general types: Neutrons and Electromagnetic.` Neutrons are electrically neutral. This means they (a) can penetrate through things a great distance but also (b) they don't interact with things much. In order for a neutron to interact, it must more or less square on hit the nucleus of a passing atom. To put this in perspective, it'd be kind of like if you shot a probe or rocket into space in a random direction and asked \"will it ever directly hit a star at the center of a solar system somewhere?\" Yes, it can happen, but it's entirely probability/a crap shoot as to whether it does or it does not. It's entirely possible for a neutron to pass into one side of your body and out the other without doing ANYTHING at all. Or it could hit one molecule just right and cause a chain reaction, damaging several other key molecules in a DNA chain in one of your cells. Neutrons that DO interact with the nucleus of an atom basically work (in a RIDICULOUSLY oversimplistic way of thinking about it) like Newton's cradle (the thing with the hanging marbles that hit each other on one end and bounce the one on the far end to swing out): The neutron becomes part of the nucleus and kicks a proton out. `...the PROTON is what goes on to crash into the next thing it hits (being positively charged, they are, of course, attracted to things where neutrons are not), and cause further reactions.` Finally, we have electromagnetic radiation or photons. These come in energy from the low energy radio to microwave, infrared, the visible spectrum (red on the low end to violet on the high end), to ultraviolet, to x-ray, to the highest energy gamma rays. Electromagnetic radiation is weird in that molecules will only absorb specific energies/frequencies of light/photons, and they are specific to that molecule type. Others will pass through without any action whatsoever. This is known as quantization (they only accept specific \"quantities\") and this creates absorption and emission lines (the specific frequencies they accept, which you can see in visual form). `Further complicating things, if a molecule accepts a photon of a given energy, it MAY give off a photon of that same energy later (one of its electrons will jump to a higher energy when it absorbs the photon's energy, then jump back down later, releasing a photon with energy), but as there are many energy levels, an electron CAN absorb a high energy photon and then come back down from that high energy in \"steps\", releasing several LOW energy photons as it does so. Energies that might NOT interact with the surroundings.` For example, visible light can pass easily through glass, but a lot of infrared cannot. When your car is in the summer heat with the windows up, the visible light will pass through the glass to the inside. There it will be absorbed by the molecules of your chair, dashboard, etc. Some of this is emitted back out later as visible light, and again passes through the glass. But, if the electron takes more than one step to come back down, it will emit several photons of lower energy infrared light on the way. These CANNOT pass through the glass, and so remain trapped inside of the car, causing the temperature to rise (cracking windows means that some of the air molecules in the car that absorb that heat energy can then escape through the window, making the car less hot than it otherwise would be - so that's how THAT works.) `One LAST thing to note here is that if the photon absorbed by the molecule has high ENOUGH energy, it won't just push the electron to a higher energy shell (\"orbit\", if you will), it will launch it out of the molecule entirely. At this point, you effectively have Beta radiation (a free electron), but inside your body (as mentioned above, that's bad since there's no skin/clothing to keep it from the more sensitive tissues). To use our analogy above, it'd be like if you shot a rocket at another solar system and it hit one of the planets there hard enough to sent it flying free of its solar system.` Needless to say, this one is complicated. Like neutrons, these can pass through your body doing NOTHING AT ALL, or they can go in and cause some damage. It is, again, a probability function of (a) will the photon pass near enough to an atom to interact and (b) is it of a specific energy that the atom will accept OR great enough to simply launch an electron out (if you exceed the binding energy of that electron entirely, then you aren't concerned about quantization anymore, since you simply remove it from the energy shell system entirely...) `FINALLY:` It's how radiation works on cells. `IF something in a cell DOES interact with radiation, several things can happen:` (a) it can be some unimportant molecule that...doesn't do anything.(b) it can be something more important, but that the cell can repair.(c) it can be something so important that the cell dies entirely, and for MOST of the cells in your body, you can deal with single cell deaths here and there (they actually happen all the time in normal life.)(d) it can be something important, BUT that your body can't repair BUT that doesn't stop the cell from reproducing to continue the \"error\" forward to future generations of cells that derive from that initial parent cell. THIS is the bad one, as it leads to things like cancers. `.` So...maybe a bit more in-depth, but I tried to keep it from going too out of control there. `The short version is, radiation is a complicated thing. It doesn't quite work like people think, and it's probability based. This means you could absorb a lot and nothing happen, or you could be exposed to a little and it kill you. People fear that unknown. BUT, the probability of harm is higher with (a) higher levels of exposure and (b) shorter times of exposure. So getting a lot of radiation in a short time IS more likely to harm you than a steady amount of a little over a long time. And the vector of entry also matters (e.g. ingestion/eating vs external exposure to skin/clothes.)` And BECAUSE it's a probability (did your missile launched into space hit a star or just travel endlessly through the void), there's no real way to PROVE harm, it's more looking at statistics, seeing if there was a spike in something like cancer cases above the average of the surrounding ares/time period, and then assuming that was maybe probably caused by radiation. `Initial blast wave = damage` Radiation wave = possibility of cancers (closer = worse) `Long term concern = contaminated surfaces and ingestion` The initial blast, contrary to dramatic effect, is actually NOT the most harmful part of a nuclear explosion. . EDIT: I should note there's some more into this (for example, how the initial blast is followed by an inrush of air from outside due to the rapidly cooling hot air contracting, or the mechanics of the compression wave, etc), but I'm trying to keep this in ELI5 territory. Definitely an interesting topic if you care to read more.
posted by Renathras on /explainlikeimfive
Click here to view the post. ● 81 Upvotes ● 1 reward(s). ● 0 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 0 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 09/08/2020 at 16:58:51 UTC
Fifth Place
Your professor is wrong. `All the Judicial, Statutory, and Historic evidence from the 17th Century to Modern day supports the individual right to keep and bear arms unconnected to militia service.` Being a direct descendant of the English colonies American law is based off of the English model. Our earliest documents from the Mayflower compact to the Constitution itself share a lineage with the Magna Carta. Even the American Bill of Rights being modeled after the English Bill of Rights. `The individual right, unconnected to milita service, pre-exists the United States and the Constitution. This right is firmly based in English law. ` [In 1689 The British Bill of Rights gave all protestants the right to keep and bear arms.](https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_of_Rights_1689) `[\"The English right was a right of individuals, not conditioned on militia service...The English right to arms emerged in 1689, and in the century thereafter courts, Blackstone, and other authorities recognized it. They recognized a personal, individual right.\" - ` `CATO Brief on DC v Heller]( http://www.abanet.org/publiced/preview/briefs/pdfs/07-08/07-290_RespondentAmCuCATOInstJMalcolm.pdf)` Prior to the debates on the US Constitution or its ratification multiple states built the individual right to keep and bear arms, unconnected to militia service, in their own state constitutions. `[\"That the people have a right to bear arms for the defence of themselves and the State\" - chapter 1, Section XV, Constitution of Vermont - July 8, 1777.](http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/vt01.asp)` [\"That the people have a right to bear arms for the defence of themselves and the state\" - A DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF THE INHABITANTS OF THE COMMONWEALTH OR STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA, Section XIII, Constitution of Pennsylvania - September 28, 1776.](http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/pa08.asp) `Later the debates that would literally become the American Bill of Rights also include the right of the people to keep and bear arms.` [\"And that the said Constitution never be constructed to authorize Congress to infringe on the just liberty of the press, or the rights of the conscience; or prevent of people of the United States, who are peaceable citizens from keeping their own arms; or to raise standing armies, unless when necessary for the defense of the United States, or of some one or more of them; or to prevent the people from petitioning, in a peaceful and orderly manner, the federal legislature for a redress of grievances; or to subject the people to unreasonable searches and seizures of their persons, papers, or possessions.\" - Debates and proceedings in the Convention of the commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1788. Page 86-87.](https://archive.org/details/debatesandproce00peirgoog) `The American Bill of Rights itself was a compromise between the federalist and anti-federalist created for the express purpose of protecting individual rights.` [\"In the ratification debate, Anti-Federalists opposed to the Constitution, complained that the new system threatened liberties, and suggested that if the delegates had truly cared about protecting individual rights, they would have included provisions that accomplished that. With ratification in serious doubt, Federalists announced a willingness to take up the matter of a series of amendments, to be called the Bill of Rights, soon after ratification and the First Congress comes into session. The concession was undoubtedly necessary to secure the Constitution's hard-fought ratification. Thomas Jefferson, who did not attend the Constitutional Convention, in a December 1787 letter to Madison called the omission of a Bill of Rights a major mistake: \"A bill of rights is what the people are entitled to against every government on earth.\"](http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/billofrightsintro.html) `In Madison's own words:` [“I think we should obtain the confidence of our fellow citizens, in proportion as we fortify the rights of the people against the encroachments of the government,” Madison said in his address to Congress in June 1789.](https://constitutioncenter.org/blog/on-this-day-james-madison-introduces-the-bill-of-rights) `Madison's first draft of the second Amendment is even more clear.` [\"The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed; a well armed and well regulated militia being the best security of a free country; but no person religiously scrupulous of bearing arms shall be compelled to render military service in person.\"](https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llac&fileName=001/llac001.db&recNum=227) `Ironically it was changed because the founders feared someone would try to misconstrue a clause to deny the right of the people.` [*\"Mr. Gerry -- This declaration of rights, I take it, is intended to secure the people against the maladministration of the Government; if we could suppose that, in all cases, the rights of the people would be attended to, the occasion for guards of this kind would be removed. Now, I am apprehensive that this clause would give an opportunity to the people in power to destroy the Constitution itself. They can declare who are those religiously scrupulous and prevent them from bearing arms.\"* - House of Representatives, Amendments to the Constitution 17, Aug. 1789](http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/amendIIs6.html) `Please note Mr. Gerry clearly refers to this as the right of the people.` This is also why we have the 9th Amendment. `[\"The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.\"](https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/United_States_of_America_1992)` Article I Section 8 had already established and addressed the militia and the military making the incorrect collective militia misinterpretation redundant. `Supreme Court cases like US v. Cruikshank, Presser v. Illinois, DC v. Heller, and even the Dredd Scott decision specifically call out the individual right to keep and bear arms unconnected to militia service.` [This is further evidenced by State Constitutions including the Right to keep and bear arms from the Colonial Period to Modern Day.](http://www2.law.ucla.edu/volokh/beararms/statedat.htm) ` “The Constitutions of most of our states assert that all power is inherent in the people; that they may exercise it by themselves, in all cases to which they think themselves competent, (as in electing their functionaries executive and legislative, and deciding by a jury of themselves, both fact and law, in all judiciary cases in which any fact is involved) or they may act by representatives, freely and equally chosen; that it is their right and duty to be at all times armed; that they are entitled to freedom of person; freedom of religion; freedom of property; and freedom of the press. in the structure of our legislatures we think experience has proved the benefit of subjecting questions to two separate bodies of deliberants; ...” - Thomas Jefferson’s letter to John Cartwright, on June 5th, 1824`
posted by vegetarianrobots on /gunpolitics
Click here to view the post. ● 104 Upvotes ● 1 reward(s). ● 0 silver reward(s), 1 gold reward(s) and 0 platinum reward(s) ● Posted: 24/08/2020 at 23:10:51 UTC
submitted by TopOfTheBot to TopOfThe [link] [comments]


2020.08.24 06:57 90c87 Current list of efforts so save the show Mega-thread.

I've compiled a list of currently known (to me) efforts to get the attention of the hero we need to save our show. Please comment additional efforts and share what you like on your other platforms.
I attempt to update regularly as my contribution to the fight. Last edit: Sept 4th.
From: u/90c87
Date: Monday, August 24, 2020 at 8:06 PMTo: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
Subject: Save The Society
Dear Netflix Executive Leadership,
I’m writing to you to ask you to reconsider your decision of cancelling The Society – the greatest show you’ve created so far. As loyal fans, we understand the complex & chaotic environment that Covid has created and we wish no harm come to the actors, producers or anyone else working on the show as a result of the pandemic. We think you’ve made the responsible choice to prioritize the safety of your staff over art; however, we do not believe this warrants the cancelling of the show. We’d be willing to wait until the pandemic is over for production to resume. That’s fine by us! We love your work and the worlds you’ve created. That’s why there’s a global outcry to save the show. It’s actually hurt us and viewers to have something so special ripped away with so many unanswered questions.
I assure you that I am not the only one that feels this way and I do speak for a global audience. Here are just some of the efforts to get your attention:
[Insert above list]
I’m no corporate executive but why can’t you just change the status to “delayed due to circumstance” from “cancelled”? The actors on your show have taken to Twitter and called it a gut punch. Kathryn Newton has signed the petition. Obviously, the creators want to create and at least 57,000 people want to watch again and again. 2020 has been an awful year. You have a chance to do some real good here AND make money. Please consider changing your minds and bringing your fans some happiness.
Thank You,
submitted by 90c87 to NetflixTheSociety [link] [comments]


2020.08.21 17:51 PvdPsycho Psychologist in Rhode Island

Psychologist in Rhode Island

PVD Psychological Associates

Meet Dr. Sarah Johnson

I am a licensed psychologist in Rhode Island. My areas of interest and specialization include evidence-based treatments for anxiety, depression, and behavioral difficulties. I also have experience working with children, adolescents, and families dealing with trauma, relationship issues, and school challenges. I incorporate Mindfulness, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), and Motivational Interviewing (MI), using a warm, supportive, and nonjudgmental approach. I also conduct comprehensive clinical and psychological assessments to understand a child or individual’s strengths and weaknesses and assist with recommendations for treatments and services needed.
In addition to my outpatient work, I serve as a staff psychologist at a therapuetic school, where I provide clinical services and special education support to youth with emotional, behavioral, and developmental needs. In this role, I also help parents, guardians, and families to support their children’s mental health, and navigate the special education system. In therapy, I am able to utilize my knowledge of the special education system to assist individuals and families who are seeking support in accessing resources within their academic or workplace environments.

My Background

I earned my Ph.D. in School Psychology at Northeastern University and received additional training during my predoctoral internship in the Newton Public Schools. I completed an APA-accredited postdoctoral fellowship in Child Clinical Psychology at Brown University where I received extensive clinical training and research experience.
I have published research on child and adolescent mental health, including dating violence, risk behaviors, and social media, in peer-reviewed journals and at national conferences. I strongly believe that research informs clinical practice.

My Approach & Philosophy

I am grateful that you are here. My focus during therapy is to build an open and trusting collaborative relationship, while helping my clients to develop strategies to cope more effectively and reach their goals. I try to create a safe, compassionate, and nonjudgmental space for my clients to feel supported and heard.
I tailor my treatment approaches while considering the context of your culture and beliefs and incorporating evidence-based practices. I would be happy to talk more and answer any questions that you might have. I look forward to getting to know you and working together!
https://pvdpsych.com/sarah-johnson-phd/
submitted by PvdPsycho to u/PvdPsycho [link] [comments]


2020.08.20 08:47 CoinEx_Institution Ocean Protocol Research Report

Ocean Protocol Research Report
Author: Garet Johan, CoinEx Business Ambassador
https://preview.redd.it/skeolnj9s3i51.jpg?width=1600&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=42b910784d779dad917d28440c97d108682b1d26
Based on Singapore
The Ocean Protocol Foundation develops a decentralized data exchange protocol that facilitates the sharing and monetizing of data assets for artificial intelligence (AI) while guaranteeing control, auditability, transparency, and compliance to all actors involved.
This becomes Ocean Protocol an ecosystem where users, corporations and others can use their data in a symmetrical and transparent way
Functions
Guarantee control, auditability, transparency, and compliance to all actors involved.
Functionality to reconcile spread of data with privacy and the commons.
It has infrastructure for service agreements and access control,
It has cryptographic proof-of-service and network rewards to incentivize supply of relevant AI data & services.
It uses on-chain bounties to ensure long-term sustainability and improvement as a public network.
Problems to be solved
Convert the information available for use by an artificial intelligence without losing control of the data
Resolve the tension between wanting more data for better AI models, with the individual right to privacy
Incentivize putting data in the commons
To be a self-sustaining ecosystem and to improve over the decades
Business:
Ocean incentivizes participants to submit, refer, and make available (provably) quality AI data & services, via a new construction called Curated Proofs Market (CPM). A CPM has two parts: predicted popularity of a dataset/service, and its actual popularity:
  1. Cryptographic Proof. The actual popularity is the count of the number of times the dataset/service is delivered or made available. To avoid being gamed, it must be made available in a provable fashion using a cryptographic proof. For example, this may be proof of data availability.
  2. Curation Market. This is for predicted popularity, a proxy for relevance. The crowd knows much better than designers of Ocean whether a given dataset/service is relevant; so we harness the power of the crowd via a curation market. This market can be thought of giving reputation to data/services where the actor must “put their money where their mouth is.”
They stake to buy “shares” (aka drops) in that dataset/service. The earlier that an actor stakes or bets on a given dataset/service, the more drops they get for the amount staked, and in turn the higher the reward.
Business Model:
To avoid people gaming the reward system, only stakeholders provably making high-quality data/services available will be able to reap rewards. Network rewards for a given dataset/service are distributed based on amount of stake in that dataset/service, and its actual popularity. In other words, CPMs instantiate the goals of verification and virality. To the best of our knowledge Whoever bets on the most popular data/service (and makes it available) wins the most rewards.
Economic Stakeholders
https://preview.redd.it/3slbcupcs3i51.jpg?width=954&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=75e3103ca384e45938cf98cb2f7c5e09583e1dde
REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE
Singapore’s goal is to be the pre-eminent hub for data sharing and Al. Towards this vision, Singapore is coordinating relevant ministries and agencies to provide an approved legal and regulatory framework for data sharing by industry and government alike.
Newton Circus (DEX) has signed a memorandum of intent (M01) with the Info-communications Media Development Authority of Singapore (IMDA) and PricewaterhouseCoopers Risk Services to foster the formation of data collaboratives: structures where data contributors, data users, solution developers and technology providers collaboratively work together to solve common business challenges In a safe regulatory environment.
https://preview.redd.it/pq8diitfs3i51.jpg?width=694&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=54bcef8f9b743da0419ef989eb3d3ea032a7a20f
From left: Mark Jansen, Data & Analytics Leader at PwC Singapore; Chirdeep Singh Chhabra & Mike Anderson, DEX; Yeong Zee Kin, Assistant Chief Executive of IMDA; and Lance Little, Managing Director, Roche Diagnostics Asia Pacific.
With the support of Singapore, several companies are participating in the data sharing use cases. Based on the progress in building the decentralized data exchange protocol, we hope that more companies will embark on the path to unlock their data.
https://preview.redd.it/kn5nld1is3i51.jpg?width=1288&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=3dd0d91bae44d2d6c451a24a1bb6513dbe218f65
Ocean Protocol should be used to unlock public data and solve important challenges facing the planet. We have partnered with other governments, as well as with non-governmental, academic, and public service initiatives to kick-start use cases centering around the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and Al for Good. By devoting resources to “commons” initiatives, Ocean Protocol can become a vital tool for global researchers.
https://preview.redd.it/oahghq5ns3i51.jpg?width=1243&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=2aa8f74b2272d90a0d4ffae8a2e3fe8380b737f1
https://preview.redd.it/d7nzgtmps3i51.jpg?width=914&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1c04f89ccf8b9b1c370c9ef314954a40c64b12b6
https://preview.redd.it/8j8x1jqqs3i51.jpg?width=916&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=753047caa85233d39aa7bc8fe69c08f9fdaabb9f
Team Information
https://preview.redd.it/jn62fb4ts3i51.jpg?width=1161&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e677a2e0d76d3c04d29aa98eaf7de1c1a73f58a1
Bruce Pon is the Founder of BigchainDB and Ocean Protocol, blockchain startups focused on bringing data and AI together since 2013. Previously, Bruce co-founded Avantalion, a consulting firm that helped to build 20 banks around the globe for companies such as Mercedes-Benz, Volkswagen, Mitsubishi & Jaguar LandRover.
Trent McConaghy is a founder of Ocean Protocol. While still an undergraduate in the mid 1990s, he did AI research for national defense.
His first startup, ADA, focused on AI for circuit design. Synopsys acquired ADA in 2004. He then did a PhD at KU Leuven on creative AI, which was awarded #1 thesis worldwide in the field.
His second startup, Solido, used AI to help drive Moore’s Law. Now, Solido is broadly used for modern chip design, from Apple to Nvidia to Sony. Siemens acquired Solido in 2017.
Building on early blockchain work in ascribe and BigchainDB, Trent’s focus is now Ocean Protocol.

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Roadmap
V2–2019 (or 2020)
After the Commons Marketplace in Tethys, we will have case-specific Marketplaces with Ocean’s collaborators.
Web 2.0 integration (for compute and storage services): we will finalize access and integration to AWS, Azure, etc.
Improved Service Execution Agreements: staking conditions; slashing conditions; bounty rewards; competition rewards. These will provide a lot of value towards incentives.
V3–2020
Verification and Validation of conditions and service provided via cryptographic proofs.
Enables incentives via network rewards.
Incentives / network rewards for different actors (including verifiers). Ocean Protocol will be able to reward with tokens against work done.
Web 3.0 integration (for example: with other decentralized projects). This is the next logical step after Web 2.0 integration. At this point we might update the roadmap to include multi-chain technology integrations.
V4–TBD
Bounties on-chain (DASH style model). Implements a means for the system to not only self-sustain but actually improve over the decades, without guidance by a centralized actor.
Clan governance (enable marketplace specific governance, group governance, etc.) for more modular governance models.
V5 — TBD
Fully permission-less Ocean Protocol. Limits opportunity for gate-keeping by node operators, while still maintaining POA performance levels.
Balanced governance: transparent process for updating protocol that balances stakeholder needs (keepers, service providers, curators, validators).
2020
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Tokenomics
The Ocean Tokens (Ocean) are used on the Ocean Protocol network as the means of value exchange, to power the protocol and incentivize the keeper nodes of the network. The Ocean Token is inseparable from the Ocean Protocol and Ocean Protocol network.
Earn Ocean Tokens by providing data
Data providers sitting on large sets of latent data can now publish data for sharing using a variety of pricing mechanisms, while maintaining full control over the data and complying with data privacy and compliance regulations.
Earn Ocean Tokens for curating data
Huge amounts of valuable public data sits unused on servers, always at risk of being removed when the funding dries up or when the political climate changes. Ocean Protocol network incentivizes the publication, curation and conservation of public data by expanding the market of buyers.
Earn Ocean Tokens by being a marketplace
Data marketplaces can connect to Ocean Protocol network to leverage their existing data and find new buyers. Meanwhile, developers, corporations, and governments with new ideas can build value-added services on top of the protocol or launch their own data marketplace.
Earn Ocean Tokens for providing network services
Network keepers provide validation and verification services for the network, store the blockchain history of transactions, and serve up relevant services to the community.

Circulating Token Supply
The circulating supply will be comprised of Ocean Tokens allotted to Acquirors, the Foundation, the founding teams and the network reward.
Early Acquirors in the Seed and Pre-Launch, and the founding teams have lock-ups ranging from 1.5–5 years.

In the initial phase, the vast majority of tokens emitted will come from pre-mined tokens for Acquirors, the Foundation and the founding teams. From Q3/2022, the increase in Ocean Token supply will come solely from the network reward.
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Token Supply Inflation
In the first year of the network, the token supply inflation will be 104% as token Acquirors, the Foundation and the founding teams receive allotments of Ocean Tokens.
The following years 2020–2022 will have supply inflation ranging between 17–21% as the founding teams get their remaining allotments and the network reward kicks in. In 2021, there’s an increase of inflation due to the full network reward activating, to incentivise keepers, data providers and other services to flock to Ocean. The 100% network reward is activated only once the network is ported to a permissionless and fully decentralised sidechain, so the 2021 target date can shift, altering the network reward schedule.
After the transition to a decentralised and permissionless chain, the network reward rapidly declines down to 6.8% in 2024 and 5.9% in 2025 when the network reward function becomes the sole source of inflation. By 2030, inflation will be 3.3%, 2040 will give 1.4%, 2050 will give 0.58% and from 2060 onwards 0.28% or less.
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Achievements
2019
March
Raised further funds in a “network launch” token sale with CoinList, and in April an Initial Exchange Offering with Bittrex International (now Bittrex Global)
May
Co-chaired the Scaling AI for Good track at the UN “AI for Good Global Summit” in Geneva. Over 2,500 hand-selected participants from 120 countries gathered together for the 4-day conference. The track, which featured speakers from the European Union, IBM, and UNICEF, resulted in 19 identified problems (10 of which were extensively mapped) and 4 teams forming and committing to tackling these problem.
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July
Throughout late summer and fall, we worked on a POC with a leading automotive company. We initiated deeper engagement with two more lead customers, towards production deployment targeting the first half of 2020. We’re at early stage discussions with many more.
October
Ocean participated in the OV Diffusion Hackathon in Berlin. There were 23 protocols represented. Of the 50 teams present, 7 built on Ocean Protocol, including an integration with Fetch.ai AI agents, and another combining Ocean with privacy-preserving multi-party compute (MPC).
Token Transactions
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Full Article
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2020.07.10 20:36 tengrrl Congratulations! CPTSC Research Grants Award Winners

Go Virginia Tech! Special Congrats to Sweta and Jennifer!!!
---------- Forwarded message ---------
From: Joanna Schreiber[email protected]>
Date: Fri, Jul 10, 2020 at 11:15 AM
Subject: [CPTSC] Congratulations! CPTSC Research Grants Award Winners
To: [email protected]>, [email protected]>
Dear Colleagues,
On behalf of the CPTSC Grants Committee, we are pleased to announce the following projects have been approved for funding. Please join us in congratulating these amazing scholars.

Project Title: “Service Learning in Technical and Professional Communication through Social Justice and Intercultural Frameworks: A Multisite Study”

Dr. Sweta Baniya, Virginia Tech
Dr. Jessica Edwards, University of Delaware
Dr. Jennifer Sano-Franchini, Virginia Tech
Dr. Josephine Walwema, Oakland University

Project Title: “Institutional Partnerships: Best practices for building a multidisciplinary technical communication curriculum”

Dr. Alyson G. Eggleston, The Citadel – The Military College of South Carolina

Project Title: “A Field Wide Examination of Service Course Learning Outcomes and Assignments”

Dr. Lisa Melonçon, University of South Florida
Dr. Tanya Zarlengo, University of South Florida

Project Title: “Understanding UX Teaching Practices in Technical and Professional Communication”

Dr. Heather Noel Turner, Santa Clara University
Dr. Emma Rose

Thank you to everyone who submitted a proposal for consideration. It was a particularly competitive year, and we are excited about the future of programmatic research. Thank you especially to our review team:

Dr. Pam Estes Brewer
Dr. Sara Doan
Dr. Christopher McCracken
Dr. Johanna Phelps
Dr. Fernando Sánchez
Thank you for joining us in congratulating these scholars and recognizing this important work. Let us know if you have questions, and please consider submitting proposals to our second CFP for 2020: Anti-racist Programs and Pedagogies.
Thank you,
Stacey Pigg, CTPSC Grants Committee Co-Chair
Joanna Schreiber, CTPSC Grants Committee Co-Chair
--Joanna Schreiber, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Professional and Technical CommunicationTreasurer, Council for Programs in Technical and Scientific Communication
Dept. of Writing and Linguistics P.O. Box 8026Georgia Southern University
622 COBA DriveStatesboro, GA 30460
Newton Bldg. 2222-C Pronouns: she/hehers
_______________________________________________
CPTSC mailing list
[[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
http://cptsc.org/mailman/listinfo/cptsc_cptsc.org
via IFTTT
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2020.07.05 19:57 inkspring Why don't Chinese people hate their authoritarian government as much as we think they should? — Kaiser Kuo explains

I've been PMed by multiple people to repost this after my original SSC post was deleted, so here it is again:
The following was originally written by the talented Kaiser Kuo as an answer to a question posed on Quora, but for the sake of easier readability, shareability, and the mobile users who don't want to create a Quora account, I've decided to repost it in text post form. I've also added the last part of the answer and postscript in the comments because of Reddit's character limit. Apologies in advance if that breaks any rules. Anyway.
Why do many people feel that the Chinese can't possibly be basically okay with their government or society?
I’m going to attempt an answer in three parts.
First, I’ll look at the gap in political culture between China and the liberal western democracies, especially the United States. I’ll argue that there is little appreciation among most WEIRD individuals—that is, Western, Educated people from Industrialized, Rich, and Developed nations—for just how highly contingent political norms they take for granted really are from an historical perspective. I’ll sketch the outlines of the major historical currents that had to converge for these ideas to emerge in the late 18th century. Then, I’ll compare this very exceptional experience with that of China, which only embraced and began to harness those engines of western wealth and power—science, industrialization, state structures capable of total mobilization of manpower and capital—much later. And late to the game, China suffered for over a century the predations of imperial powers, most notably Japan. Hopefully, I’ll show why it was that liberalism never really took hold, why it was that Chinese intellectuals turned instead to authoritarian politics to address the urgent matters of the day, and why authoritarian habits of mind have lingered on.
Next, I’ll argue that a lot of unexamined hubris lies not only behind the belief that all people living under authoritarian political systems should be willing to make monumental sacrifices to create liberal democratic states but also behind the belief that it can work at all, given the decidedly poor record of projects for liberal democratic transformation in recent years, whether American-led or otherwise. It’s important to see what the world of recent years looks like through Beijing’s windows, and to understand the extent to which Beijing’s interpretation of that view is shared by a wide swath of China’s citizenry.
Finally, I’ll look at the role of media in shaping perspectives of China in the western liberal democracies and in other states. A very small number of individuals—reporters for major mainstream media outlets posted to China, plus their editors—wield a tremendous amount of influence over how China is perceived by ordinary Anglophone media consumers. It's important to know something about the optical properties of the lens through which most of us view China.
Part I — The Values Gap: The Historical Contingency of Liberal Western Thought and Institutions
One evening, I was chatting online with a friend here in China, another American expatriate living in another city, about the great disconnect in recent Western understandings of China—the thing that this question and answer seeks to get to the heart of. He suggested that at least for Americans (we’re going to use Americans here, mainly, to stand in for the Anglophone western liberal democracies) the question underlying the disconnect boiled down to this:
“Why don’t you Chinese hate your government as much as we think you ought to?"
The modern Chinese party-state, after all, is a notorious violator of human rights. It cut its own people down in the street in 1989. It prevents with brutal coercion the formation of rival political parties and suppresses dissent through censorship of the Internet and other media. It oppresses minority populations in Tibet and in Xinjiang, depriving them of religious freedoms and the right to national self-determination. It persecutes religious sects like the Falun Gong. It behaves in a bellicose manner with many of its neighbors, like the Philippines, Vietnam, and India. It saber-rattles over disputed islands with its longstanding East Asian adversary, Japan. It presses irredentist claims against Taiwan, which has functioned as an effectively sovereign state since 1949. It has pursued breakneck economic growth without sufficient heed to the devastation of the environment. It has not atoned for the crimes committed during the Cultural Revolution or the Great Leap Forward, when tens of millions died because of absurdly misguided economic policies. It jails rights activists, including a Nobel Peace Prize laureate. I could of course go on.
Why then would any American not ask this question? Seems pretty obvious from the perspective of anyone from a liberal western democracy that this is a political system that needs to go, that has failed its people and failed to live up to basic, universal ideas about what rights a government needs to respect and protect. They’ll have heard the argument that China’s leadership has succeeded in other ways: it has allowed China to prosper economically, lifting hundreds of millions out of poverty, creating a substantial and comfortable middle class with expanded personal (if not political) freedom. And the Chinese Communist Party has managed to ensure a relatively long period of political stability, with orderly leadership transitions absent the political violence that had accompanied nearly all others until Deng Xiaoping’s ascent.
"Yeah, but so what?" asks the American. "Anyone who would trade a little freedom for a little personal safety deserves neither freedom nor safety,” he asserts, quoting Benjamin Franklin. He quotes this as gospel truth, ignoring the irony that many Americans advocated just such a trade in the aftermath of September 11. That aside, why shouldn't he quote it? It’s deeply engrained in his political culture. Political liberty is held up practically above all else in the values pantheon of American political culture.
The American myth of founding sees the Puritan pilgrims, seeking a place where their brand of Protestantism might be practiced freely, crossing the Atlantic in the Mayflower, creating en route a quasi-democratic quasi-constitution, the Mayflower Compact, landing at Plymouth Rock in 1620, and over the next 150 years growing into the colony that would lead its 12 sisters into rebellion for freedom from the "tyranny" of King George III. Americans hold the ideas enshrined in their founding documents very dearly, and can't really be blamed for doing so: they are, after all, some very high-minded and frankly very beautiful ideas.
What he doesn’t quite appreciate is the precariousness of the historical perch on which these ideas—ideas he holds so strongly and believes so ardently to be universal truths—ultimately rest. Americans, like everyone else for that matter, tend not to take much time to understand the historical experiences of other peoples, and can't therefore grasp the utter contingency upon which their own marvelous system rests.
I'm going to grossly oversimplify here, in this grand backward tour of European history, but the political philosophy that gave rise to modern American political ideals, as even a fairly casual student of history should know, emerged during the 18th century in the Enlightenment—an intellectual movement of tremendous consequence but one that would not have been possible save for the groundwork laid by 17th century naturalists who, taken together, gave us an "Age of Reason" (think Newton and all the natural philosophers of the Royal Academy). Their great work could be pursued because already the intellectual climate had changed in crucial ways—chiefly, that the stultifying effects of rigid, dogmatic theology had been pushed aside enough for the growth of scientific inquiry. That itself owes much to the Protestant Reformation, of course, which people tend to date from 1517 but which actually reaches back over a century earlier with John Wycliffe, Jan Hus, arguably Erasmus, and the other pre-Lutheran reformers.
And would the Reformation have been possible without the rediscovery of classical learning that was the animating spirit of the Renaissance? Would the Renaissance have been possible without the late medieval thinkers, such as Abelard, who sought out to subject theology to the rigors of Aristotelian logic and reason? Would all this have been possible, if not for the continuous struggles between Emperor and Pope, between Guelph and Ghibelline factions—partisans for the temporal power of the Vatican and Holy Roman Emperor? The fact is that this series of historical movements, eventually carving out politics that was quite separate from—indeed, explicitly separate from—theocratic control, was only really happening in this small, jagged peninsula on the far western end of the great Eurasian landmass. And in the rest of the world—the whole rest of the world—none of this was happening. Political theology remained the rule with rare, rare exceptions.
What we've now taken as the norm and the correct form for the whole world—liberal, secular, democratic, capitalistic—is truly exceptional, recent, rare, fragile, and quite contingent.
Let’s turn and look for a moment at China, which is arguably much more typical. China is a civilization that didn’t until much later and perhaps still doesn't fit neatly into the modern conception of the nation-state; a massive continental agrarian empire, a civilization with an integrated cosmology, moral philosophy, and political philosophy which together formed the basis of a holistic orthodoxy, deep knowledge of which was required for any man (alas, only men) who wished to climb the only real available ladder of success: the Civil Service Exams.
The China that the West—in this case, chiefly the British—encountered in the late 1700s was really at or just past its peak, ruled by a reasonably competent and conscientious Manchu emperor who history knows as Qianlong, ruling a land empire matching, roughly, the contours of the contemporary People’s Republic, almost entirely self-sufficient but willing to sell its silk, porcelain, and especially its tea to anyone who brought minted silver bullion—two-thirds of the world’s supply of which, by the time of the American Revolution, was already in Chinese coffers.
What followed was a crisis that lasted, with no meaningful interruption, right up to 1949. Foreign invasion, large-scale drug addiction, massive internal civil wars (the Taiping Civil War of 1852-1863 killed some 20 million people), a disastrous anti-foreign uprising (the Boxers) stupidly supported by the Qing court with baleful consequence, and a belated effort at reform that only seems to have hastened dynastic collapse.
The ostensible republic that followed the Qing was built on the flimsiest of foundations. The Republican experiment under the early Kuomintang was short-lived and, in no time, military strongmen took over—first, ex-dynastic generals like Yuan Shikai, then the militarists who scrambled for power after he died in 1916. China disintegrated into what were basically feuding warlord satrapies, waging war in different constellations of factional alliance. Meanwhile, China's impotence was laid bare at Versailles, where the great powers handed to Japan the colonial possessions of the defeated Germany, despite China having entered the Great War on the side of the Allies.
During this time, liberalism appeared as a possible solution, an alternative answer to the question of how to rescue China from its dire plight. Liberalism was the avowed ideology of many of the intellectuals of the period of tremendous ferment known as the May Fourth Period, which takes its name from the student-led protests on that date in 1919, demonstrating against the warlord regime then in power which had failed to protect Chinese interests at Versailles at the end of World War I. (The May Fourth period is also referred to as the New Culture Movement, which stretched from roughly 1915 to 1925). The "New Youth" of this movement advocated all the liberal tenets—democracy, rule of law, universal suffrage, even gender equality. Taking to the streets on May Fourth, they waved banners extolling Mr. Sai (science) and Mr. De (democracy).
But with only very few exceptions they really conceived of liberalism not as an end in itself but rather as a means to the decidedly nationalist ends of wealth and power. They believed that liberalism was part of the formula that had allowed the U.S. and Great Britain to become so mighty. It was embraced in a very instrumental fashion. And yet Chinese advocates of liberalism were guilty, too, of not appreciating that same contingency, that whole precarious historical edifice from which the liberalism of the Enlightenment had emerged. Did they think that it could take root in utterly alien soil? In any case, it most surely did not.
It must be understood that liberalism and nationalism developed in China in lockstep, with one, in a sense, serving as means to the other. That is, liberalism was a means to serve national ends—the wealth and power of the country. And so when means and end came into conflict, as they inevitably did, the end won out. Nationalism trumped liberalism. Unity, sovereignty, and the means to preserve both were ultimately more important even to those who espoused republicanism and the franchise.
China's betrayal at Versailles did not help the cause of liberalism in China. After all, it was the standard bearers of liberalism—the U.K., France, and the United States—that had negotiated secret treaties to give Shandong to the Japanese.
Former liberals gravitated toward two main camps, both overtly Leninist in organization, both unapologetically authoritarian: the Nationalists and the Communists. By the mid-1920s, the overwhelming majority of Chinese intellectuals believed that an authoritarian solution was China's only recourse. Some looked to the Soviet Union, and to Bolshevism. Others looked to Italy, and later Germany, and to Fascism. Liberalism became almost irrelevant to the violent discourse on China's future.
For anyone coming of age in that time, there are few fond memories. It was war, deprivation, foreign invasion, famine, a fragile and short-lived peace after August 1945, then more war. Violence did not let up after 1949—especially for the hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, who were "class enemies" on the wrong side of an ideological divide; or for the hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers sent to fight and die in Korea so soon after unification. And even with peace, prosperity didn't come: 1955 saw Mao announce a "high tide of collectivization," which was followed by the tragic folly of the Great Leap Forward and ensuing famine, in which tens of millions perished.
A friend of mine named Jeremiah Jenne who taught US college students at a program here in Beijing once said something to the effect of, “When Americans create their movie villains, when they populate their nightmares, they create Hitler and the SS again and again: Darth Vader and the Stormtroopers.” The fear of the liberty-loving American, he implied, is of a surfeit of authoritarianism.
What of the Chinese? The Chinese nightmare is of chaos—of an absence of authority. And such episodes of history are fresh in the minds of many Chinese alive today—only a handful are old enough to actually remember the Warlord Period but plenty can remember the Cultural Revolution, when Mao bade his Red Guards to go forth and attack all the structures of authority, whether in the classroom, in the hospital, in the factory, or in the home. And so they humiliated, tortured, sometimes imprisoned and sometimes even murdered the teachers, the doctors, the managers, the fathers and mothers.
In the 25 years since Deng inaugurated reforms in 1979, China has not experienced significant countrywide political violence. GDP growth has averaged close to 10 percent per annum. Almost any measure of human development has seen remarkable improvement. There are no food shortages and no significant energy shortages. Nearly 700 million Chinese now use the Internet. Over 500 million have smartphones. China has a high speed rail network that's the envy of even much of the developed world. China has, by some measures, even surpassed the U.S. as the world's largest economy.
So try telling a Chinese person that anyone willing to trade a little personal liberty for a little personal safety deserves neither liberty nor safety, and they’ll look at you like you’re insane. Therein lies the values gap.
Part II — The View through China’s Window: Liberal Hegemonism in US Foreign Policy
In the first part, I laid out a case for why it’s quite natural, given the tendency of Americans (as with all people) to ignore or understate historical contingencies and recognize their own privileges and prejudices, for Americans to be puzzled by Chinese acquiescence toward—indeed, by their often quite vocal support for—a political system so execrable by certain American standards.
The hubris of some Americans about their own political system seems to me especially natural, even forgivable, in the years following the collapse of the Soviet Union. From the vantage point of 1991, a kind of triumphalism was inevitable: the liberal west, with America at its vanguard, had just vanquished the second of the century’s great ideological enemies. First was Fascism and Naziism with the defeat of the Axis powers in 1945 (never mind that Bolshevik Russia, from the time Hitler invaded Russia, never faced less than two-thirds of German divisions in the field), then Bolshevism with the end of the Cold War.
And what was on the minds of Americans—who had watched the Berlin Wall come down, Lech Walesa and Vaclav Havel assume the Polish and Czech presidencies, Yeltsin defend the Russian parliament and Gorbachev declare the Soviet Union’s end—what was on their minds as they turned thoughts to China?
Tiananmen, of course, with its incredibly potent imagery: a million people in the Square, Tank Man, and the Goddess of Democracy. Looming ever present in nearly every conversation about American perception of China in the last quarter century—now in the background, now in the fore—is the bloody suppression of the 1989 student-led protests in Beijing. (Fun Fact: The first democratic elections in Poland were held on June 4, 1989, the very day of the crackdown on the Beijing protests).
The years that followed the end of the Cold War would see gathering in American foreign policy a new ideology that would come to supplant the realist school that had dominated from the time of Richard Nixon. This is what the MIT political scientist Barry R. Posen calls Liberal Hegemonism: an activist, interventionist thread that believes in the pushing of liberal democratic politics and capitalism through all available means from “soft power,” to operations aimed at destabilizing authoritarian governments, to actual preemptive war (the Bush doctrine) and the “regime change” of the Neoconservatives. Some of its basic assumptions—not all, but some—are shared both by liberal interventionists and NeoCons. For American liberals, it was guilt from failure to act in the Rwandan Genocide, or to the “ethnic cleansing” that characterized the wars during the breakup of Yugoslavia, that gave impetus to this; for NeoCons, it was the unfinished business of Desert Storm. They found much common ground in their support for “color revolutions” in the former Soviet republics. They may have debated tactics but the impulse was to spread American values and institutions, whether or not doing so would serve a specific and definable American interest. That could be done the Gene Sharp way, or the Paul Wolfowitz way. Neither way was something Beijing wanted done to it.
And I don’t think it takes a whole lot of empathy to see what things have looked like from Beijing over the last 25 years. Deng Xiaoping, while he was still alive, pursued a policy of “biding its time and hiding its power” as he focused on building China's domestic economy, avoiding any real confrontation and trying to rebuild relationships post-Tiananmen.
But it wasn’t long before tensions sparked. In May of 1999, US smart bombs fell on the Chinese embassy in Belgrade, and virtually no Chinese believed the American explanation that it was a mistake, the result of an out-of-date map that showed the embassy as an arms depot. Later, in April of 2001, the collision of an American EP-3 spy plane with a Chinese fighter jet off of Hainan Island, off China’s southern coast, sent another chill through Sino-American relations. And things looked like they might have taken a turn for the worse, had not September 11 taken the pressure off.
The “War on Terror,” which China could notionally join in, distracted the U.S., which quickly found itself fighting two long wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Meanwhile, the Chinese economy was in high gear, chugging along at double-digit growth rates right up to the eve of the Financial Crisis. The Sino-American waters were probably never calmer than in the years between 2001 and 2008.
Perhaps history will see 2008 as an important turning point in these attitudes: during the same year that China staged its first Olympic games, the financial crisis, which China weathered surprisingly well, walloped the West (and much of the rest of the world) with what was arguably its signal event, the bankruptcy filing by Lehman Brothers on September 15—happening just three weeks almost to the day after the closing ceremony of the Beijing summer games on August 24.
It was China’s turn to feel a kind of triumphalism, which often took the form of an unattractive swagger. Meanwhile, a sense of declinism gnawed at the American psyche. After 2008, China became the object of global (read: American) attention again, fueled for some by anxieties over the rapidity of its rise, in others by anger over major flare-ups in western China: riots in Lhasa, Tibet’s capital, in March, 2008, and in Urumqi, Xinjiang’s capital, in July, 2009. Factory conditions became a growing concern as Americans realized that even the most sophisticated electronics they sported—everyone had an iPhone by then, right?—were manufactured in China.
Remember, too, that excitement over the political potency of social media was also enjoying something of a heyday in this period of liberal hegemonic ascent. As one color revolution after another was live-tweeted (Moldova was perhaps the first, but not the only, of the street movements to be called “The Twitter Revolution”), as every movement had its own Facebook page and Youtube channel, China’s reaction was to censor. There is, after all, one belief about the Internet that the most hardline Chinese politburo member shares with the staunchest American NeoCon: that the Internet, unfettered, would represent an existential threat to the Communist Party’s hold on power. They have of course very different views as to whether that would be a good thing or a bad thing. But can we really be surprised that, able as they are to open to the op-ed section of any American broadsheet and find this idea that Internet freedom is the key to toppling authoritarian single-party rule, the Communist Party leadership would conclude that their approach to censorship is correct? But this of course has created another potent issue over which Americans, very naturally, express outrage—and puzzled frustration that Chinese aren’t (literally) up in arms over Internet censorship.
Beijing obviously lamented the Soviet empire’s incredibly rapid implosion. It doubtlessly chafed at how NATO expanded its membership practically up to the Russian doorstep. It certainly hasn’t loved it that American troops are operating from Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, and were present in great numbers in Afghanistan (which by the way borders China, if only at one end of the narrow Wakhan Corridor). Beijing has surely fretted as American-backed NGOs (the National Endowment for Democracy, or NED, is the big boogeyman for pro-Beijing types—perhaps as Confucius Institutes are the bête noire for their anti-Beijing American counterparts) conspired, or so they believe, with the instigators of color revolutions. And it certainly sees the Pivot to Asia—now rebranded the “Rebalancing”—as a species of containment. But what I suspect really has Beijing freaked out, what really seems to have confirmed that America still has its cherished liberal hegemonic ambition, was the Arab Spring. Is Beijing so wrong, looking out on the smoldering wreckage of Libya and Syria, at the mess that Egypt still remains, to want to avoid that outcome at whatever price? Or to think that America’s true, ultimate intention might be regime change in Beijing? Kissinger once famously said that even a paranoid can have enemies.
What does all this foreign policy stuff have to do with Chinese attitudes toward their government? It’s fair to ask this; after all, the question I’m trying to answer isn’t specifically about the Chinese state and how it sees things, but rather the Chinese people, and the attachment they seem to have toward a state that comes up so short by American measure. It’s the rare person who can truly separate, at both an intellectual and an emotional level, criticism of his or her country from criticism of his or her country’s government—especially if that government is not, at present, terribly embattled and is delivering basic public goods in a reasonably competent manner. States tend to try to reinforce that conflation of people with state (and in China’s case, party). They encourage the basic state-as-family metaphor, something that in the Chinese case is part of the deep structure of Confucian political thinking and is therefore probably easier to nurture than to extirpate. I don’t doubt that propaganda has a role in this, but I would assert that its role is generally exaggerated in American thinking about China.
In any case, if you’ll indulge some pop psychological speculation, I’ll go out on a limb and posit confidently that external criticism of a leadership will tend to, if anything, reinforce a citizenry’s identification with the state and blur the lines even more between “government” and “people.” Perhaps I’m wrong. But most people I know who are known to bitch occasionally about their own parents get awfully defensive when people outside the family offer unsolicited criticism. This seems especially to be the case with mothers.
And so it is that many ordinary Chinese citizens, online and inevitably aware now of the timbre of China discourse in English-language media, tend to elide criticism of the state and Party with criticism of China, and take it personally. They feel a distinct sense of having been singled out for unfair criticism and will reach easily for handy explanations: Hegemonic America can't abide another serious power rising in the world, and just wants to sow discord and strife to keep China down; America needs to create a boogyman, an enemy to replace its fallen Cold War foe and placate its military-industrial complex. And in any case, America doesn't appreciate just how far we've come under the leadership of this party, however imperfect.
People will debate what the Party’s real role has been in poverty alleviation: is it accurate to say that the Chinese government “lifted 300 million people from poverty” or is it more correct to say that they mostly got out of the way and allowed those people to climb out of it themselves? (I tend to like the latter phrasing). That’s not the only accomplishment in China’s 35+ years of reform that will be fought over. But the simple truth is that by many, many measures of human development, the great majority of Chinese people are undeniably better off today than they were before Deng inaugurated reform. The grand unofficial compromise, in a kind of updated Hobbesian social contract, that the Party made with the Chinese people—“You stay out of politics, we’ll create conditions in which you can prosper and enjoy many personal freedoms”—has been, on balance (and to date), a success.
No thinking Chinese person of my acquaintance believes that the Party or its leadership is anything close to infallible. Most can be quite cynical about the Party, the venality of officials, the hidden factional struggles, the instinct for self-preservation. They’re fully appreciative of the Party and leadership's many shortcomings. They don’t shrink from criticizing it, either; they aren’t reflexively careful of what they say and who might be listening.
But they don’t bandy words like “revolution” about casually. They tend to have a sober appreciation for what’s at stake, for the price that would have to be paid. They’re realistic enough to understand that the Party is not apt to tip its hat adieu and go gently to history's proverbial dustbin. They still believe, and not entirely without evidence, that the Party leadership is attuned to public opinion and will respond when the will of the people is made manifest. They support reform, not revolution.
I’ve little doubt that desire for more formal political participation, for a renegotiation of terms in that unwritten contract, will grow stronger. That’s in the cards. You’ll get no argument from me that it’s been a raw deal for many people with very legitimate grievances. There are many who’ve broken with the Party-state, who openly or secretly dissent, whose relationship with it is entirely and irreversibly oppositional. Among these are many whose courage of conviction and towering intellects I deeply and unreservedly admire, and others who I think are mere gadflies or attention-seeking malcontents without a sense of what’s at stake. In the case of all of them, regardless of what I think of them personally, I regard it as a black mark on the Chinese leadership each time a dissident is locked up for ideology, speech, religious belief or what have you. But most Chinese people tend to be pragmatic and utilitarian; the state’s ability to deliver social goods gives it a kind of “performance legitimacy." The good (prosperity, material comfort, sovereign dignity) and the bad (a censored Internet, jailed dissidents, polluted rivers, smog) go on the scales. For now, it’s unambiguous in which direction those scales are tipping.
Part III — The Anglophone Media Narrative on China and Sources of Bias
If you're a denizen of the Anglophone world, your impressions of China are almost certainly formed primarily by the media that you consume. There are of course exceptions: some 100,000 Americans have, in the last five years, spent time working or studying in China; there are several thousand enrolled in East Asian Studies graduate programs, or taking serious upper-division undergraduate coursework on China, or pursuing an academic discipline that focuses on China; and there are probably a few thousand more who, for personal reasons, have taken more than a passing interest in China and have read a good number of books on contemporary China or on modern Chinese history, have undertaken the study of Chinese, or have otherwise immersed themselves in trying to gain a deeper understanding of China. Taken together, though, these people represent a small percentage of the general media-consuming audience—the college-educated American who, say, reads a paper once in a while, watches cable or network news with fair regularity, listens to NPR on her drive to work, and occasionally clicks on a China-related tweet or on a friend's Facebook page, or her counterpart elsewhere in the Anglophone world. All told, that's several tens of millions of people, I'm guessing, in the U.S., Canada, the U.K., Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand.
It's worth reflecting on that, for this majority of news-consumers, impressions of China are almost entirely dependent on the reporting produced, at least regularly and in the main, by probably fewer than a hundred individuals. I'm talking about the reporters for the major newswires like Reuters, Bloomberg, Dow Jones, and AP, whose stories appear not only in the major papers and on news portals online, but also in smaller metropolitan and even local markets; the journalists who write for the major newspapers and news magazines; television news reporters; and the foreign desk editors, subeditors, and producers working with the reporters. There are also the news assistants, unsung heroes without whom many of the China-based reporters who haven't mastered enough Chinese to read local media or documents, or conduct interviews in the native tongue of their interviewees, would be unable to do their jobs. If we include them, the number perhaps doubles but it's still no more than 200, perhaps 250 individuals whose contributions to the gathering, reporting, writing, and editing of news and the creation of news-related commentary actually matters.
What, though, do we really know about these people? If this is the lens through which so many Americans (once again, I'll remind folks that "American" here is really shorthand for Anglophone westerners) view China, it seems to me very sensible that we should wish to understand something about the optical properties of that lens. Does it distort? Of course it does; it could not but distort, could not but offer only a partial and selective view—this mere few score of reporters trying to present a picture of the world's most populous nation as it hurtles ahead with unprecedented force (in the f=ma sense).
This is not an indictment. These are people who I very much respect—indeed, the very people who these days comprise most of my personal circle of friends—and they are people who have my sympathy for what they must often endure in reporting from China. It's not an easy place to report from, especially if you're reporting on things that the Chinese government, or someone at least, doesn't want reported—and what else, after all, really qualifies as news reporting? They are subjected to some pretty shabby treatment, everything from the talk-to-the-hand they'll get from government ministries, to veiled and not-so-veiled threats related to visa renewals, to roughing-up by local thugs or plainclothes cops or even uniformed ones, to surveillance and harassment. I think if there's a source of bias with which I'd start my list, it's this. Seems only natural that this kind of treatment of a journalist anywhere would beget less than rosy coverage of the institutions doling it out. Negative coverage begets more of that nasty treatment, and so on in a most un-virtuous circle.
Should the journalists be faulted for focusing on the things that power, whether political or corporate, wants to hide? No, I don't think so. Rightly or wrongly—and I'm unambivalent in my personal belief that it's "rightly"— this is what gets the journo juices flowing. Journalism is not about the quotidian.
The historian Will Durant once wrote in The Age of Faith, "We must remind ourselves again that the historian, like the journalist, is forever tempted to sacrifice the normal to the dramatic, and never quite conveys an adequate picture of any age." I would note that while the historian can write enormously lengthy monographs in which some of that normal can be restored and that picture made more adequate, the journalist just doesn't have that leisure, and his sacrifice of the normal is more forgivable.
And yet it has an impact on perception; it's still a source of distortion, of bias. This failure to focus on the more "normal" is, I would assert, one of the major reasons for the disconnect at the heart of the original question: the prevalence among Americans of "Why don't you hate your government as much as I think you ought to?"
One of the more regrettable outcomes of this particular bias in the way China is reported reflects in the (notional, educated, mainstream-media-consuming) American public's understanding of the Chinese intellectual. Reporters tend to focus not just on critical intellectuals but on the more outspokenly critical ones, on the full-blown dissidents, on the very vocal activists, on the writers who challenge the establishment on human rights issues, on freedom of speech, on rule of law, on religious policy, on minority nationality policy and so forth. Of course they focus on these people; they're "the dramatic," in Durant's phrase. They set out to excite so no wonder that many of them are exciting. They play to the American love of the underdog. They flatter American values.
It's right, I believe, to focus on intellectuals. One could make a very serious argument that China's history is at some important levels driven by the dynamics of the relationship between intellectuals and state power, whether dynastic or Party. Dissidents and the more stridently critical intellectuals certainly are part of that dynamic. But I would submit that it's actually more important to understand another type of intellectual, and another mode of relations between the intellectuals and state power, between, if you will, the pen and the sword: the "loyal opposition," who during most times—including this time—comprise the real mainstream, and who see it as their role to remonstrate and to criticize but not to fully confront. It's these voices, a kind of "silent majority," to use an apt phrase whatever its connotations in the American polity, who go too often ignored in our reporting. Because "Noted Chinese scholar is basically okay with the government, though he thinks it could be improved in X, Y, and Z" is not a particularly grabby headline or a compelling read.
There's also a kind of source bias that's related to this and it's regrettably caught in a bit of a feedback loop, too. The general impression is that Anglophone media is pro-dissident, and so dissidents will tend to go on record with or speak at greater length with Anglophone reporters; moderate or pro-Party intellectuals will tend to decline interviews and comment, and the impression that Anglophone media is biased in favor of the dissidents gets reinforced: the narrative that they want is buttressed while the other is marginalized or weakened.
Another almost ineradicable bias in Anglophone media reporting, so prevalent that it's almost not worth pointing out, is bias in favor of democratic polities. Authoritarian states like China tend to get reported on unfavorably because they behave like authoritarian states. They don't allow, by definition, rival political parties to freely form. They don't allow a free press. They censor the Internet. And of course journalists in the Anglophone world are themselves on the front lines of these speech and press issues. It's almost tautological that the press of the free world would want to free the press of the world.
submitted by inkspring to u/inkspring [link] [comments]


2020.07.03 21:17 solesoulshard Please protect yourselves

So, standard disclaimer: Am not a lawyer and for legal questions, please refer to a member of the law profession in your area. Your mileage may vary and details may vary from state to state or country to country.
TLDR; Protect yourselves and make an effort to understand your rights. Consult a lawyer or law enforcement in your area for specific details.
I can’t believe I’m writing this, but I figure with everything going on, it’s worth a shot.
Please protect yourselves online.
1) Please use very strong passwords that vary from site to site. A strong password (for the few who may not know) is at least 8 characters with at least a capital letter, a number and a symbol. This should not be things like: pet’s name, your name, any variation of “password”, any variation of “admin”, any variation of “change me”, your SSN, your child’s name, your birthdate, your occupation (i.e. “policeman1234”) or anything that would uniquely identify you. The longer, the better and the less obvious, the better. You can also double or triple up on the password, but this is not ideal. A longer password will take longer for even a brute force, computer driven attack.
2) Please use unique logins for things you do not want to be associated. If you’re using “legale_eagle3222” everywhere, it will associate your Facebook, your social media, your IG, your Reddit, etc. Ideally, you’d have a unique ID everywhere, but let’s face it, that’s a bear to keep up with.
3) If you login anywhere with your Facebook or Google or XXXX login rather than the native login scheme, then you will have the probability that your traffic is tagged and collected and collated AND SHARED with every company out there. There is also the possibility that if your Google/Facebook/etc is hacked, then the hacker can get in everywhere you use that as your login.
4) Most every site has a Terms of Service (TOS) that states that you have to be 13 or older. This is (In the USA) because of COPPA—the Child Online Privacy Protection Act. This states (among other things) that if a site collects data (and most of them do), then they cannot collect on a “child” which is defined as a person 12 or below. The gist is that if you direct your content to children, you have to either get and maintain parental consent or you cannot collect on the user. Now, this impacts advertisements and info sharing, which is how sites get a large part of their revenue because an ad that is shown based on your choices and preferences is more income vs an ad shown generically. If I look up “firm ripe tomatoes” and get 2 ads—one for tomato fertilizer and one for learning German online—then the tomato fertilizer ad will generate more revenue than the learning German online ad. For a child who looks up “Undertale”, companies are supposed to not show directed ads (such as for Undertale merchandise) and if they do track every user, the site must get parental consent to collect.
Most sites will do a simple age gate—“Are you sure you’re old enough to see this?”—and a button agreeing. This is a bit of a legal sticking point because age gates have no way to determine if the person is actually 13 or 18 or whatever, which is where the law could be used to say “You are in violation of tracking regulations”. And if a device is passed from person to person (i.e. parent to child), then the consent from the parent can be in doubt.
At any rate, the Terms of Service generally will have buried somewhere that violating the terms of service (such as being too young) absolves the company/site from any damages. So, if you violate the terms of service by logging in without being of age and get (for example) a virus, then since you violated the Terms of Service, you are not entitled to any damages or holding the site responsible. READ THE TERMS OF SERVICE BECAUSE THAT IS THE GOVERNING DOCUMENT IF YOU NEED TO SEEK DAMAGES.
4) Please turn off location services if you don’t need them. Not sure when this started (and don’t care), but photos and services began logging in your geographical stats and the date/time. This means that anyone getting that photo can potentially get the exact location of where a picture was taken and when it was taken. Facebook had a program that would track your runs and bike trips and then post the information—Hey, I did 10 miles today. Obviously, this turns your run into a step-by-step target of where you are and where you’re likely to be. So, turn off your location services when you don’t need them—photos, Apple GameCenter, Facebook, etc.
5) Please go to your social media’s security and restrict the contents appropriately. Maybe not everything needs to be available to the public. Maybe only family needs to see the baby pictures. Don’t assume that the companies are going to protect you—by default most sites will set you to wide open for public consumption. Some companies will maintain your security settings so you don’t have to reset every week, but things change and you will need to check from time to time to maintain your privacy. Specifically, try to restrict how much the site tries to “help” by tagging your photos or trying to match you with other people via algorithms and face matching.
6) Please clean out your cookies and browser history regularly. Sites will use cookies to help track you from virtual place to virtual place. They will also try to use session tracking by assigning you a session ID. Using “incognito” mode will help, but you can set most browsers to clear your history when you close the browser. Everyone from airlines to hotels to Google will read those cookies and will try to monetize them. It’s how the airline knows you’ve searched for tickets to New Hampshire for a week and they will adjust their prices based on those searches.
7) Please read privacy policies. Privacy policies are there to tell you how they will use the information that they collect. Now, they are long and filled with legalese, but it’s worth being sure you understand what they will do. If there is medical information potentially involved, it is vital that they tell you how they intend to share the information. HIPPAA (In the USA) will dictate how they can share your medical records, so it is vital to understand privacy policies.
8) Please check the email addresses for every suspicious email you get. We will all get spam—not gonna argue—but lots of people will try to spoof Apple or your bank or your company in order to get you to log in. If you get an email “helpfully” giving you a link and instructing you to go login for whatever reason (usually “security” reasons such as to “confirm your account”), then go to the site itself and do not follow the link. For your bank and school, call them directly. A legit system admin will never need you to send them your login and password.
9) Please use HTTPS for sensitive information such as banking or loan information or login to sites. You can usually find a locked padlock on the browser if HTTPS has been set up correctly. If that lock icon is open or yellow/red (browsers have different icons), then do not use that site to login.
10) Please take very great care in photographing yourself and your friends. Totally on board with “wow—look at this dress” or “watch me play my guitar” or “my favorite skateboard trick”. It is a lot of fun to connect virtually and especially when we cannot hangout together, but sending photos is getting more risky. Facial recognition is growing and pasting people’s faces on other people’s bodies is getting easier. (Hence all the celebrity look alike porn.) Now, your SO or fans or whatever might be 100% awesome people—not making a judgement there either. There are some things to consider. If you are under legal age (whatever that might be for your jurisdiction AND the site’s Term of Service) and take/send nude or suggestive pictures, that may fall under child pornography laws. If I as a 15 year old take a nude photo to send to my boyfriend, I have produced child pornography in my area. If I send that nude photo, I have transmitted child pornography. Now, in this example, I am consenting and presumably this hypothetical boyfriend is consenting, but child porn is still child porn and carries strict punishment. Revenge porn is only recently becoming illegal, so check your local regulations and laws.
11) Please take doxing seriously. So, someone found out your information. Please take it seriously. Report it. If someone knows personally identifying information, they can not only humiliate you online, but it can be used to find out more information. If I have a valid address, I can not only find someone, I can direct mail to them (mail fraud, btw) or direct mail away from them. I can build an identity and potentially steal that information to run up credit cards and medical debt.
FOR MINORS, this is especially important because in the USA, a minor cannot report erroneous credit (such as credit cards in your name) and a minor cannot freeze their credit reports so that the information cannot be used. In addition, medial fraud can go on for years and be impossible to remove from your record. Your credit can be ruined as a minor and you can then be denied apartment leases, home buying, student loans.
12) Please learn your region’s reporting requirements. Who do you report internet crimes to? The FBI, DHS and other groups have good reporting tools.
13) Please be careful of public internet such as Internet cafes or free WiFi. This is handy, not gonna lie, but these places are rife with hackers and people who are listening to the traffic for their own purposes. Switch to HTTPS and avoid things like banking and credit inquiries/loan applications in those locations.
Schools generally have the right to monitor and block objectionable traffic in most instances. So do places like libraries. In a home, objectionable traffic can be monitored and blocked by the individual ISP and by whoever owns the account with the ISP.
14) Please be careful of the information you are asked and how it may be used. Not all sites need everything—even if they ask for it. Also, you do not need to answer explicitly for “security questions”. A website that is asking for your mother’s maiden name as a password recovery setup will not check that “Issac Newton” is not really your mother. Your favorite pet’s name can be Splinter or OakTree. Your favorite job title can be “WitchfinderPulsifer”. Your best friends can be “Aziraphale” or “Crowley”. Your mother can be Rainbow Brite. Your school can be Hogwarts. The idea is that someone else will not be able to crack the security and change your password or security information by knowing basic information about you. Legitimate profile information should be covered by the privacy policies and TOS as to how it is stored and how they are going to be used.
15) Please note that everything you do likely will be around a loooooong time on the Internet. By design, the Internet uses caching (kind of an in-memory record of data) to shorten load times. If I created a page in 1990, then the caches and storage of that page may still be around, despite the actual website being taken down and the hardware being scrubbed. This means if you post something, chances are good that it will be stored in other places than the website you put it on. So, if you take down that website, the caches will still have it and the request for that website will potentially find it before the word gets around that you’ve deleted the site. And that’s not counting the lead time between when I request the site go down and the site is actually removed, whether or not Facebook/Pinterest/etc has taken photos or recorded my post.
The practical upshot is that basically, the Internet lives forever. This means that future employers can (and will!) find it. This means that future opportunities such as potentially college applications and graduate applications and so on can (and will!) find it. Law enforcement. The list goes on and on and—professionally—the number of companies doing social media searches is growing. This can be good—your epic fan fiction, your video of winning the rowing competition, etc—or it can be bad. Or mixed. So, the idea of a barrier of separation—a different email and username for example—between the stuff you want grandma and your boss to see is important.
16) Please keep your computers, devices and hardware up to date on security patches and virus scans.
17) Please check the laws in your location. Please check the laws in your location. You may be required to reveal your social media in the event of a police investigation. You may be required to reveal online activities to an employer or to your school. I don’t know and am not a lawyer, so I cannot tell you what your area will require. Please check the laws in your location.
18) Please look out for each other. Do tell people if it looks like they are targeted. Do tell people if you see that they might be in danger. Do tell law enforcement if it looks like someone is crossing the border into danger.
19) Please do talk to law enforcement if someone is doxing or making threats. At least in my area, going online and making statements about attacking a person is “communicating threats” and is a crime by itself. Now, more than ever, people are taking these reports seriously as warning signs that someone can be in danger.
In my final opinion: Continue supporting each other. Spread positivity and support.
Links:
Stop Bullying (stopbullying.gov) https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&ved=2ahUKEwiwrNyB5LHqAhWTgnIEHRRUCpcQFjACegQIAxAB&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.stopbullying.gov%2Fcyberbullying%2Fhow-to-report&usg=AOvVaw3UGEVAgmdyRYvwaN8_6ZzQ
FBI Reporting link
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&ved=2ahUKEwiwrNyB5LHqAhWTgnIEHRRUCpcQFjAEegQIBRAB&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.fbi.gov%2Ftips&usg=AOvVaw0-9SmuZsfT2NgXD_wdR3pd
Reporting crime in US
https://www.usa.gov/report-crime
Report Human Trafficking
https://www.acf.hhs.gov/otip/victim-assistance/national-human-trafficking-hotline
Department of Justice (US) Reporting a variety of crimes
https://www.justice.gov/actioncentereport-crime
Department of Homeland Security (Page about keeping safe online)
https://www.dhs.gov/blue-campaign/online-safety
Department of Justice Report Hate Crime
https://www.justice.gov/hatecrimes/get-help-now
FBI Hate crime — statistics and reporting
https://www.fbi.gov/investigate/civil-rights/hate-crimes
submitted by solesoulshard to IncelTear [link] [comments]


2020.07.01 19:54 stasbekman Blueberry U-pick around Victoria

If you're into blueberry u-pick close to Victoria, this post is a compilation of the info for 2020, based on my last year's post. I'll be updating this page for the next 6 weeks or so - usually the season ends mid-August.
If you know of other farms or have more up-to-date info and corrections, please add the info in your comments and I will add it to the main post. I know mostly of the farms in the Saanich area, but other close to Victoria areas are welcome too. Thank you.
The main difference from last year is that you are not to bring your own containers due to COVID concerns.
In BC, the blueberry varieties that are mainly grown for commercial production are Duke, Reka, Bluecrop, Brigitta, Liberty and Elliott. Some of them produce huge berries, some small. Some of them are sweet, while others are tart. some of them are very juice, while others are more on a dry side.
Please make sure to check farmer's Facebook page before going, as sometimes they close for a day or two - and most of the time they let us know.

U-pick is On

https://www.facebook.com/Stewartsberrypatch6283/
6283 Oldfield Road Saanichton BC, V8M 1X7
250-652-6768
Daily 8am-4pm
$3.50/lb
experience: super friendly hosts & multiple varieties

https://www.facebook.com/pg/Theos-Blueberries-1110749935614971/
6410 Old West Saanich Road, Saanichton, BC V8M 1W8.
604-992-7501 [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
Mon-Sat 9am to 2pm
$7/kg
experience: super friendly hosts & multiple varieties

https://www.facebook.com/saanichorganics/
1438 Mount Newton Cross Road Saanichton, BC V8M 1S2
(250) 652-9035 [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
$3.50/lb - this is a self-service location so bring cash.
note: They provide only tiny containers.
experience: excellent

https://www.facebook.com/MeadowbrookFarm/
http://meadowbrookfarmily.com/
205 Meadowbrook Rd Victoria, British Columbia V9E 1J5
(250) 479-7166
Mon - Sat: 9:30am - 2pm.

U-pick coming soon

The estimated open dates are derived either from the FB posts of the farm owners or from direct communications with them.

Unknown yet

http://stellerblueberries.com/
6337 Oldfield Rd, Saanichton, BC V8M 1X8
(778) 426-0280
Mon-Sun 8-5pm
$3.25/lb
experience: not very friendly reception, decided to go to Stewart's Berry Patch again instead, which is next door, and who are super-friendly

https://www.facebook.com/marshfarmvictoria/
7337 Wallace Drive Saanichton, BC V8M 1S9
(778) 678-4558
$5/lb
Mon closed Tue - Sun 9-4

https://www.facebook.com/arborblueberryfarm/
http://arborblueberryfarm.weebly.com/
305 Walton Pl, Victoria, BC V9E 2A4
250-704-0053

https://www.philsfarm.ca/
6080 Oldfield Rd., Victoria, BC
250-652-2264
submitted by stasbekman to VictoriaBC [link] [comments]


2020.06.17 21:29 mr_tyler_durden Notes and Highlights of Kentucky Governor Andy Beshear’s Live Update June 17, 2020

Notes and Highlights of Kentucky Governor Andy Beshear’s Live Update June 17, 2020
Notes by mr_tyler_durden and Daily Update Team
Note: We may need to paraphrase, but the notes are accurate
Watch here:
Headlines
Summarized (Full) Notes
QUESTIONS
END QUESTIONS
Register for your absentee ballot or update your voter registration!
If you have been laid off/lost your job use the following resources to get help!
KY Medicaid: https://healthbenefitexchange.ky.gov (855-459-6328)
Benefind: https://benefind.ky.gov (855-306-8959)
If you see price gouging report by calling 888-432-9257
To donate PPE call 833-GIVE-PPE (833-448-3773) or go to the website.
If you see a business or person not following the guidelines and putting others at risk call 833-KY-SAFER (833-597-2337) or report it on the website
As always our one true source of information should be the http://kycovid19.ky.gov/ website or the hotline: 800-722-5725
You can find more information on our Wiki!
We are also up and running on Discord!
submitted by mr_tyler_durden to Coronavirus_KY [link] [comments]


2020.06.10 01:56 mikikaoru [FT] Stuff at St. Laurie - Catalog Every Furniture, KK Song, and Kicks Bag to catalog [LF] 350 NMT

Edit: that’s it for the night! See everyone again!
Welcome to the grand opening of Stuff at St. Laurie by mikikaoru and Dawn_Princess!! We have every orderable furniture item, Kicks bag, and K.K. Slider song available for cataloging.
We plan on offering this service for quite a while, but only for one group this initial session. The first few posts will be limited to people wanting to catalog everything for 350 NMT. We are planning on offering individual groups at a later date. As much as we would love to get to everyone, we will only be able to take the first 4 people who comment on this post because of the time involved. We plan on accepting more people in later sessions.
We will begin in a half hour from this post so you have time to empty your inventory and gather your tickets.
Rules: Please do not DM either of us. We are not going to accept offers outside of this thread and will not move people up the list.
This post will be open for a VERY short time as we are only taking 4 people tonight. We are planning on doing these every couple of days, so watch out for the next time we do this.
Please be patient if you are in any group past the first. There are over 1900 items on the island to pick up. This takes about 2.5 hours We are planning to have 4 people on the island cataloging.
When you are on the island, please be sure to sit close to the modem/have stable internet connection. Any disconnections will be really frustrating for everyone involved.
Please come with 5 tools in your pockets to drop with your payment. I am trying to avoid people swapping items and to be fair to everyone coming to catalog.
When performing the cataloging, each group is divided into piles of 9 items. Grab 9 items and drop them where they were. Do not move on until you’ve done this.
You are welcome to skip over groups that you don’t need to catalog.
Be on the lookout for our next post! If you are coming to catalog, please plan on communicating via reddit chat rather than in-game to save time. Listed below are the items and how they’re organized!
Special thanks to u/par016 for having every item listed that we edited into our own groups!
Disclaimer: I believe this is every orderable item in every color pattern, but it is possible that I’ve missed something
Furniture (72 Items) Music A (60 Items) Music B (44 Items) Pets & Clocks (67 Items) Outdoors A (57 Items) Outdoors B (65 Items) Asian (65 Items) Workshop & Containers (55 Items) Rattan (60 Items) School (59 Items) KK Songs (95) Throwback (57 Items) Beach (63 Items) Kicks Bags (72 Items) Living Room (65 Items) Decor A (63 Items) Decor B (60 Items) Kitchen A (65 Items) Bathroom (50 Items) Arcade (49 Items) Office (44 Items) A/V (44 Items) Kitchen B (38 Items) Kitchen C (52 Items) Lights (44 Items) Gadgets (48 Items) HVAC (45 Items) Bedroom (55 Items) Cute (50 items) Gym (54 Items) Toys (49 Items) Diner (54 Items) Antique + Bears (51 Items) Plants (39 Items) Fabrics (47 Items)
Group 1 - Furniture - (72 items) 7 Baby Chair (Black, Blue, Green, Pink, Red, White, Yellow) 4 Book Stand (Black, Brown, Colorful, Pastel) 6 Clothes Closet (Black, Blue, Light Blue, Orange, Pink , White) 1 Cushion 6 Den Chair (Black, Brown, Camel, Green, Red, White) 5 Den Desk (Brown Wood, Dark Wood, Natural Wood, Red Wood, White) 4 Floor Seat (Black, Dark Wood, Light Wood, Natural) 5 Floor Sign (No Entry, No Parking, Slippery, Stop, Warning) 6 Folding Chair (Black, Blue, Brown, Green, Red, White) 1 Futon 8 Inflatable Sofa (Blue, Camouflage, Green, Lime, Pink, Polka dots, Purple, Rainbow) 6 Serving Cart (Black, Brown, Natural, Red, White, White & Silver) 1 Table with Cloth 1 Telescope 6 Tissue Box (Blue, Natural Wood, Rattan, Red, Yellow, White) 4 Vintage TV Tray (Black, Copper, Gold, Silver) 1 Wheelchair
Group 2 - Music A - (61 ITEMS) 1 Alto Sax - 7 Amp (Black, White, Red, Brown, Orange, Pink, Blue) 6 Effects Rack (White, Orange, Black, Pink, Red, Blue) 1 Marimba 5 Metronome (Black, Cream, Blue, Brown, Red) 1 Mic Stand 3 Pedal Board (Black, Pink, Green) 8 Record Box (Red, Black, Blue, Green, White, Yellow, Pink, Grey) 8 Rock Guitar (Coral Pink, Sunburst, Cosmo Black, Fire Red, Natural Wood, Chic White, Cool Blue, Orange-Yellow) 1 Silver Mic 4 DJ's Turntable (Black, Brown, Pink, White) 8 Drum Set (Black & White, Rose Pink, Pearl White, Golden Yellow, Cosmo Black, Marine Blue, Evergreen, Natural Wood) 8 Piano Bench (Blue, White, Light Green, Red, Green, Black, Brown, Camel)
Group 3 - Music B - (44 ITEMS) 3 Cello (Natural, White, Black) 8 Electric Bass (Chic White, Cosmo Black, Ash Green, Shocking Pink, Deep Ocean, Natural Wood, Space Silver, Sunburst) 7 Electric Guitar (Dark Red, Natural Wood, Cherry, Sunburst, Marine Emerald, Chic White, Cosmo Black) 3 Fancy Violin (Natural, White, Black) 4 Grand Piano (Black, White, Cherry, Walnut) 5 Harp (Light Brown, White, Brown, Black, Dark Brown) 6 Synthesizer (Silver, Red, Blue, Brown, Black, Yellow) 4 Street Organ (Natural, Blue, Dark Brown, Yellow) 4 Upright Piano (Walnut, White, Black, Maple)
Group 4 - Pets & Clocks - (67 ITEMS) 1 Ant Farm 1 Brine-Shrimp Aquarium 6 Cat Tower (Beige , Brown, Gray, Navy Blue, Pink , White) 5 Hamster Cage (Blue, Brown, Pink, Red, Yellow) 7 Kitty Litter box (Black, Brown, Green, Light Blue, Orange, Pink, White) 3 Pet Bed (Dark Brown, Natural, White) 5 Pet Food Bowl (Blue, Green, Orange, Pink, Red) 7 Cuckoo Clock (Black, Blue, Green, Natural, Red, White, Yellow) 8 Digital Alarm Clock (Black, Blue, Light Blue, Lime, Orange, Pink, Purple, White) 6 Double Sided Wall Clock (Black, Green, Red, Silver, White, Yellow) 4 Hourglass (Black, Brown, Natural, White) 8 Old Fashioned Alarm Clock (Black, Copper, Gold, Light Blue, Red, Silver, White, Yellow) 1 Pendulum Clock 5 Wall Clock (Black, Blue, Red, Silver, White)
Group 5 - Outdoors A - (57 ITEMS) 4 Ball (Basketball, Dodgeball, Soccer Ball, Volleyball) 3 Basketball Hoop (Black, Blue, Green) 6 Camp stove (Black, Blue, Brown, Green, Red, Yellow) 1 Campfire Cookware 8 Camping Cot (Blue, Camouflage, Green, Pop Pattern, Red, Simple Pattern, Snow Camouflage, Yellow) 5 Candle (Black, Copper, Gold, Silver, White) 1 football 6 Golf Bags (Brown, Green, Multicolor, Pink, Red, Silver) 8 Lantern (Black, Blue, Gold, Green, Light Blue, Pink, Red, Yellow) 6 Mountain Bike (Black, Blue, Green, Pink, White, Yellow) 1 Oil Lamp 8 Sleeping Bag (Black, Blue, Green, Orange, Purple, Red, White, Yellow)
Group 6 - Outdoors B - (65 ITEMS) 5 Barbecue (Black, Green, Red, White, Yellow) 1 Clay Furnace 5 Garden Faucet (Concrete, Mosaic Tile, Red Brick, Stainless, Wooden) 8 Garden Gnome (Sprightly, Sleepy, Surprised, Reliable, Hungry, Laid-back, Passionate, Rebel) 3 Garden Lantern (Black, Bronze, White) 6 Handcart (Black, Blue, Brown, Green, Red, Yellow) 6 Hose reel (Black, Blue, Green, Red, Silver, Yellow) 5 lawn mower (Blue, Green, Orange, Red, Yellow) 1 Outdoor Air Conditioner 5 Outdoor Bench (Black, Blue, Green, Red, White) 6 Outdoor Generator (Blue, Orange, Red, Silver, Turquoise, Yellow) 5 Outdoor Table (Black, Blue, Green, Red, White) 6 Plastic Pool (Blue, Colorful, Green, Orange, Pink, Polka Dots) 3 Poolside Bed (Brown, Dark Brown, Light Brown)
Group 7 - Asian - (65 ITEMS) 4 Autograph Card (Handprint, Illustration, Signature, Words of Wisdom) 3 Cypress Bathtub (Dark Wood, Light Wood, Natural Wood) 5 Elaborate Kimono Stand (Balls, Cranes, Hawk, Tree Peonies, Wisteria) 5 Hanging Scroll (Blue, Brown, Green, Pink, Purple) 1 Kimono Stand 1 Kotatsu 3 Low Screen (Brown, Dark Brown, Light Brown) 3 Paper Lantern (Dark Wood, Natural Wood, Orange Wood) 5 Screen (Bamboo, Dragon, Pine, Plum, Tiger) 4 Tatami Bed (Black, Dark Brown, Light Brown, Natural) 3 Traditional Tea Set (Floral, Goldfish, Plain) 4 Imperial Bed (Black, Blue, Brown, Red) 4 Imperial Chest (Black, Blue, Brown, Red) 4 Imperial Decorative Shelf (Black, Blue, Brown, Red) 2 Imperial Dining Chair (Black, Brown) 4 Imperial Dining Lantern (Black, Blue, Gold, Red) 2 Imperial Dining Table (Brown, Red) 4 Imperial Low Table (Black, Blue, Brown, Red) 4 Imperial Partition (Black, Blue, Brown, Red)
Group 8 - Workshop & Containers - (55 ITEMS) 7 Cardboard Box (Apples, Cherries, Labeled, Oranges, Peaches, Pears, Plain) 7 Garbage Bin (Black, Blue, Brown, Green, Red, White, Yellow) 1 Garbage Can 1 Garbage Pail 1 Metal Can 8 Oil Barrel (Blue, Caution, Damaged, Green, Light Blue, Light Green, Orange, Red) 5 Plastic Canister (Blue, Gray, Green, Red, White) 1 Tin Bucket 8 Tool Cart (Black, Blue, Green, Orange, Pink, Red, Silver, Yellow) 6 Toolbox (Blue, Green, Orange, Pink, Red, Turquoise) 4 Tool Shelf (Black, Blue, Green, White) 6 Wall-Mounted Tool Board (Black, Blue, Camel, White, Red, Yellow)
Group 9 - Rattan (60 ITEMS) Colors are Brown, Reddish Brown, Light Brown, White, Grey, Black Items in each color are armchair, bed, end table, low table, stool, table lamp, towel basket, vanity, wardrobe, waste bin
Group 10 - School - (59 ITEMS) 1 Anatomical Model 3 Basic Teacher's Desk (Monotone, Standard, Wooden) 4 Book (Encyclopedia, Japanese Literature, Textbook, Western Literature) 7 Chalkboard (After School, Art, Blank, Club Activities, Foreign Language, Math, Music) 4 Essay Set (Blank, In Progress, Letter, Writer's Block) 1 Homework Set 1 Lab Experiment Set 2 Lecture-hall Bench (Dark Brown, Light Brown) 3 Lecture-hall Desk (Dark Brown, Light Brown, White) 1 Magazine 3 Microscope (Black, Silver, White) 4 Painting Set (Light Blue, Pink, White, Yellow) 1 Podium 6 School Chair (Beige & Green, Brown & White, Gray & Blue, Light Brown & Black, Natural & Silver, White & Red) 6 School Desk (Beige & Green, Brown & White, Gray & Blue, Light Brown & Black, Natural & Silver, White & Red) 1 Skeleton 7 Whiteboard (Blank, Brainstorming Meeting, Fact Finding Meeting, Language Classroom, Sales Meeting, Schedule, Strategy Meeting) 4 Writing Poster (Alphabet, Constellations, Multiplication Table, Periodic Table)
Group 11 - Cute- (50 ITEMS) Colors are sky blue, red, blue, white/pink, and red Items are bed, chair, DIY table, floor lamp, music player, sofa, tea table, vanity, wall-mounted clock, and wardrobe
Group 12 - Throwback - (57 ITEMS) 7 Throwback Container (Black, Blue, Green, Light Blue, Red, White, Yellow) 1 Throwback Dino Screen 3 Throwback Gothic Mirror (Black, Red, White) 8 Throwback Hat Table (Baseball, Black & Orange, Black & Yellow, Blue, Green, Red, White & Blue, White & Red) 6 Throwback Mitt (Blue, Brown, Camel, Green, Red, White) 7 Throwback Race-Car Bed (Black, Blue, Green, Pink, Red, White, Yellow) 6 Throwback Rocket (Silver, Yellow, Red, Green, Blue, Black) 6 Throwback Skull Radio (Ash, Black, Gray, Green, Red, White) 7 Throwback Wall Clock (Blue, Gray, Green, Purple, Red, White, Yellow) 6 Throwback Wrestling Figure (Black, Blue, Gold, Green, Pink, Red)
Group 13 - Beach - (63 ITEMS) 4 Beach Ball (Blue, Colorful, Red, Watermelon) 6 Beach Chair (Black, Blue, Orange, Pink, White, Yellow) 1 Beach Towel 8 Cassette Player (Black, Blue, Green, Pink, Red, Silver, White, Yellow) 4 Cooler Box (Blue, Green, Red, Yellow) 8 Elephant Slide (Black, Blue, Gray, Light Blue, Pink, Red, White, Yellow) 1 Fire Pit 7 Hammock (Black, Blue, Brown, Light Brown, Pink, White, Yellow) 6 Lawn Chair (Black, Blue, Green, Pink, Red White & Blue, Yellow) 4 Life Ring (Blue, Orange, Red, Yellow) 6 Picnic Basket (Blue, Gray, Green, Red, White, Yellow) 2 Sand Castle (Natural Sand, White Sand) 6 Surfboard (Brown, Cool, Hibiscus Flower, Red, Stripes, White)
Group 14 - Kicks Bags- (72 ITEMS) Every orderable bag in every color variation
Group 15 - Living Room - (65 ITEMS) 8 Box Corner Sofa (Black, Magenta, Navy Blue, Orange, Pink, Turquoise, White, Yellow) 8 Box Sofa (Black, Magenta, Navy Blue, Orange, Pink, Turquoise, White, Yellow) 1 Breaker 4 Broom and Dustpan (Colorful, Dark Brown , Natural, White) 8 Double Sofa (Black, Blue, Dark Brown, Green, Light Brown, Red, White, Yellow) 4 Fireplace (Beige, Dark Brown, Red, White) 8 LCD TV (20 in.) (20 in.) (Black, Blue, Light Blue, Pink, Red, Silver, White, Yellow) 5 LCD TV (50 in.) (50 in.) (Black, Blue, Red, Silver, White) 4 Light Switch (Gray, Brown, White, Wood Grain) 1 Retro Radiator 8 Wall-Mounted TV (20 in.) (Black, Blue, Light Blue, Pink, Red, Silver, White, Yellow) 5 Wall-Mounted TV (50 in.) (Black, Blue, Red, Silver, White) 1 Wood Burning Stove
Group 16 - Decor A - (63 ITEMS) 1 Butterfly-Fish Model 5 Celebratory Candles (Black, Blue, Brown, Light Brown, White) 4 Champions pennant (Black, Blue, Green, Red) 3 Formal Paper (Brown, Dark Brown, Light Brown) 5 Gears (Black, Colorful, Copper, Silver, Wooden) 1 Grasshopper-head model 4 Macrame tapestry (Blue, Green, Pink, White) 1 Mantis Head Model 5 Mobile (Gorgeous, Hot Air Balloons, Ocean Creatures, Sheep, Space) 1 Mounted Black Bass 1 Mounted Blue Marlin 6 Party Garland (Boating Stripes, Colorful, Gorgeous, Orange & Black, Pastel, Pop) 5 Pennant (Classic, Souvenir, Sponsor, Sports, University) 6 Sanrio Posters (Cinnamoroll, Hello Kitty, Kerokerokeroppi, Kiki & Lala, My Melody, Pompompurin) 6 Tapestry (Animal, Bird, Fairy Tale, Floral, Geometric Pattern, Snow) 5 Wall-mounted Candle (Black, Copper, Gold, Silver, White) 1 Wasp-head model 2 World Map (Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean) - I know these are customizable
Group 17- Decor B - (60 ITEMS) 8 Heart Doorplate (Blue, Green, Light Blue, Monotone, Orange, Pink, Purple, Red) 5 Colorful Wheel (Black & Red, Colorful Numbers, Items, Two-toned Numbers, Win or Lose) 8 Cone (Blue, Caution Stripes, Green Stripes, Red, Red Stripes, Reflective Stripes, White, Yellow) 4 Fishing Boat Flag (Bounty, Big Catch, Longevity, Launch) 3 Flashy-Flower Sign (Cute, Elegant, Pop) 5 Menu Chalkboard (Blue, Dark Brown, Natural, Red, White) 2 Mr Flamingo (Natural, White) 2 Mrs. Flamingo (Natural, White) 2 Skull Doorplate (Brown, White) 5 Fragrance Diffuser (Blue, Green, Pink, White, Yellow) 4 Fragrance sticks (Black, Blue, Brown, Green) 6 Glass Holder with Candle (Blue, Green, Pink, Purple, Red, White) 6 Incense burner (Cherry Blossom, Deep Sea, Forest, Rose, Sandalwood, Tea)
Group 18 - Kitchen A - (66 ITEMS) 8 Analog Kitchen Scale (Black, Blue, Green, Ivory, Light Blue, Pink, Red, Yellow) 6 Coffee Cup (Elegant, Floral, Plain, Polka Dots, Rose, Royal) 1 Coffee Grinder 4 Cream and Sugar (Brown, Floral, Silver, White) 1 Dinnerware 6 Dish Drying Rack (Black, Blue, Red, Silver, White, Yellow) 1 Kettle 3 Knife Block (Black, Natural, Silver) 3 Magnetic Knife Rack (Pop, Stainless Steel, Wooden) 8 Mug (Black, Blue, Green, Pink, Red, Turquoise, White, Yellow) 3 Pot Rack (Pop, Stainless Steel, Wooden) 3 Revolving Spice Rack (Brown, Orange, White) 7 Simple Kettle (Black, Blue, Green, Navy Blue, Red, White, Yellow) 3 Stovetop Espresso Maker (Black, Red, Silver) 5 Table Setting (Black, Light Blue, Pink, White, Yellow) 4 Tea Set (Blue, Green, Red, White)
Group 19 - Bathroom - (50 ITEMS) 3 Bathroom Sink (Beige, Black, White) 4 Bathroom Towel Rack (Black, Copper, Gold, Silver) 1 Bidet 6 Claw-Foot Tub (Black, Blue, Pink, Red, White, Yellow) 7 Digital Scale (Black, Blue, Brown, Green, Red, White, Yellow) 7 Long Bathtub (Black Marble, Green, light blue, Pink, Two-Toned Tile, White, White Marble) 4 Shower Booth (Black, Blue, Pink, White) 4 Shower Set (Black, Copper, Gold, Silver) 1 Squat Toilet 1 Standing Toilet 5 Tankless Toilet (Black, Ivory, Light Blue, Pink, White) 3 Toilet (Dark Wood, Natural Wood, White) 2 Toilet-Cleaning Set (Colorful, Monotone) 2 Whirlpool Bath (Black, White)
Group 20 - Arcade - (49 ITEMS) 1 ACNH Nintendo Switch11 3 Arcade Game (Combat Game, Fighting Game, Mahjong Game) 3 Arcade Seat (Red, Gray, Blue) 3 Billiards Table (Green, Red, Blue) 4 Candy Machine (Red, Yellow, Pink, Blue) 1 Dartboard 4 Desktop Computer (Black, Pink, Silver, White) 4 Exit Sign (Left and Right Arrows, Left Arrow, Red Exit, Right Arrow) 3 Foosball Table (Blue, Brown, Dark Brown) 1 Jukebox imagine ) 1 Nintendo Switch 5 Pinball Machine (White, Red, Blue, Black, Brown) 6 Retro Gas Pump (Black, Green, Red, Retro, White, Yellow) 1 Server 1 Tennis Table 1 Velvet Stool
Group 21 - Office - (44 ITEMS) 2 Aluminum Briefcase (Gold Bars, Stacks of Cash) 8 Changing Room (Beige , Black, Blue, Brown, Dark Brown, Gray, Green, Pink) 4 Director's Chair (Black, Dark Brown, Light Brown, White) 1 Judge's Bell 7 Modern Office Chair (Black, Blue, Green, Light Blue, Pink, Red, Yellow) 4 Office Desk (Beige & White, Brown & Black, Gray, White) 5 Popcorn Machine (Black, Blue, Green, Pink, Red) 2 Shaved Ice Machine (Green, Silver) 3 Smoker (Black, Green, Silver) 4 Writing Chair (Dark Brown, Light Brown, Natural, White) 4 Writing Desk (Dark Brown, Light Brown, Natural, White) 7 Laptops
Group 22 - A/V - (44 ITEMS) 1 Film Projector 1 Hi-Fi Stereo 1 High-End Stereo 1 Phonograph 8 Portable Radio (Black, Blue, Green, Light Blue, Pink, Red, White, Yellow) 7 Portable Record Player (Red, Yellow, Blue, Green, Pink, Black, Orange) 3 Pro Tape Recorder (Black, Brown, Gray) 2 Retro Stereo (Black, Brown) 8 Studio Spotlight (Blue, Green, Orange, Pink, Purple, Red, White, Yellow) 8 Studio Wall Spotlight (Blue, Green, Orange, Pink, Purple, Red, White, Yellow) 4 Tape Deck (Black, Orange, Silver, White) 2 TV Camera (black, White)
Group 23 - Kitchen B - (38 ITEMS) 4 Double-Door Refrigerator (Black, Red, Silver, White) 4 Freezer (Beige, Black, Silver, White) 5 Gas Range (Black, Blue, Red, Silver, White) 7 Kitchen Island (Black, Blue, Dark Brown, Light Brown, Red, Silver, White) 1 Open-Frame Kitchen 8 Refrigerator (Black, Blue, Brown, Pink, Red, Silver, White, Yellow) 8 System Kitchen (Black, Blue, Brown, Natural, Off-White, Red, Yellow, White) 1 Utility Sink
Group 24 - Kitchen C - (52 ITEMS) 7 Espresso Maker (Black, Blue, Green, Red, Silver, White, Yellow) 4 Microwave (Black, Green, Red, White) 8 Mini Fridge (Black, Blue, Gray, Pink, Red, White, Wood Grain, Yellow) 8 Mixer (Bananas, Blueberries, Carrots, Green Smoothie, Kiwifruit, Oranges, Strawberries, Tomatoes) 6 Pop-up toaster (Green, Light Blue, Red, Silver, White, Yellow) 5 Rice Cooker (Berry Red, Black, Brown, Silver, White) 8 Soup Kettle (Borscht, Congee, Corn Soup, Cream Stew, Curry, Green Curry, Hot-and-sour soup, Minestrone) 6 Stand Mixer (Black, Gray, Light Blue, Pink, Red, Yellow)
Group 25 - Lights - (44 ITEMS) 8 Floor light (Blue, Green, Light Blue, Orange, Pink, Purple, Red, White) 7 Rocket lamp (Blue, Red, Yellow, Turquoise, Purple, Green, Pink) 8 Soft-serve lamp (Vanilla, Purple Sweet Potato, Mango, Pale Sky, Green Tea, Chocolate Swirl, Strawberry Swirl, Rainbow) 4 Floor Lamp (Black, Brown, Natural, White) 8 Folding Floor Lamp (Black, Blue, Gray, Light Green, Red, Silver, White, Yellow) 8 Shaded Floor Lamp (Blue, Green, Lime, Pink, Purples, Red, White, Yellow) 1 Table Lamp
Group 26 - Gadgets - (48 ITEMS) 7 Cordless Phone (Black, Light Blue, Pink, Red, Silver, White, Yellow) 4 Fax Machine (Black, Brown, Red, White) 1 Intercom Monitor 8 Rotary Phone (Black, Blue, Green, Orange, Red, Silver, White, Yellow) 1 Surveillance Camera 6 Typewriter (Black, Blue, Brown, Gold, Green, Silver) 7 Upright Vacuum (Black, Green, Orange, Pink, Red, Silver, White) 5 Vacuum Cleaner (Black, Gray, Green, Red, Yellow) 3 Video Camera (Black, Red, Silver) 6 Wall-Mounted Phone (Black, Blue, Gray, Red, Silver, White)
Group 27- HVAC - (45 ITEMS) 5 Air Circulator (Black, Green, Pink, White, Yellow) 6 Air conditioner (Black, Blue, Brown, Gray, Pink, White) 4 Fan (Black, Light Blue, Pink, White) 8 Humidifier (Blue, Brown, Green, Natural, Pink, Purple, White, Yellow) 3 Retro Fan (Blue, Green, Orange) 6 Round Space Heater (Black, Green, Light Blue, Orange, Red, White) 5 Ventilation Fan (Blue, Green, Orange, Pink, White) 8 Wall Fan (Black, Blue, Brown, Green, Red, Silver, White, Yellow)
Group 28 - Bedroom - (55 ITEMS) 5 Accessories Stand (Black, Brown, Light Blue, Pink, White) 7 Bunk Bed (Black, Blue, Pink, Red, Silver, White, Yellow) 4 Cartoonist Set (Black, Brown, Pink, Silver) 3 Corkboard (Blue, Natural, White) 6 Desk Mirror (Black, Blue, Gold, Pink, Red, White) 8 Loft Bed with Desk (Black, Blue, Brown, Light Blue, Natural, Orange, Pink, White) 2 Nail Art Set (Black, Pink) 8 Rings (Black, Blue, Brown, Green, Pink, Red, Turquoise, White) 4 Safe (Black, Gold, Silver, White) 8 Simple Panel (Black, Brown, Copper, Gold, Light Brown, Light Gray, Silver, White)
Group 30 - Gym - (54 ITEMS) 1 Blue Corner 4 Climbing Wall (Blue, Natural, Pink, White) 5 Exercise Ball (Black, Blue, Gold, Pink, White) 4 Exercise Bike (Black, Red, White, Yellow) 6 Handy Water Cooler (Avocado, Blue, Green, Plaid, Red, Yellow) 1 Neutral Corner 4 Protein Shaker Bottle (Cocoa Flavored, Plain, Strawberry Flavored, Vanilla Flavored) 4 Pull-up-bar stand (Black, Blue, Red, Yellow) 3 Punching Bag (Black, Blue, Red) 1 Red Corner 3 Speed Bag (Black, Blue, Red) 3 Stadiometer (Blue, Gray, Pink) 4 Treadmill (Black, Blue, Red, White) 7 Upright Locker (Black, Blue, Green, Red, Silver, White, Yellow) 2 Water Cooler (Black, White) 1 Weight Bench 1 Zen Cushion
Group 31 - Toys - (49 ITEMS) 1 Bingo Wheel 3 Board Game (Kids, Simple Path, Territory) 3 Bottled Ship (Leisure, Pirate, Trading) 2 Chessboard (Black, Brown) 6 dolly (Blue, Green, Pink, Purple, Red, White) 6 Electric Kick Scooter (Blue, Green, Pink, Red, White, Yellow) 2 Electronics Kit (Black, Green) 2 Fortune Telling Set (Black, Purple) 3 Globe (Cool, Sepia, Standard) 1 Go Board 2 magic kit (Blue, Red) 1 Newton’s Cradle 1 Plasma Ball 1 Sea Globe 1 Snow Globe 4 Toy Box (Blue, Green, Gray, Pink) 4 Train Set (Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter) 5 Tricycle (Black, Blue, Pink, Red, Yellow) 1 Unfinished Puzzle
Group 32 - Diner - (54 ITEMS) 7 Diner Chair (Black, Blue, Cream, Pink, Red, Aquamarine, Yellow) 7 Diner Counter Chair (Black, Blue, Cream, Pink, Red, Aquamarine, Yellow) 7 Diner Counter Table (Black, Blue, Cream, Pink, Red, Aquamarine, Yellow) 7 Diner Dining Table (Black, Blue, Cream, Pink, Red, Aquamarine, Yellow) 7 Diner Mini Table (Black, Blue, Cream, Pink, Red, Aquamarine, Yellow) 7 Diner Neon Clock (Blue, Cream, Pink, Purple, Red, Aquamarine, Yellow) 5 Diner Neon Sign (Blue, Green, Orange, Purple, Red) 7 Diner Sofa (Black, Blue, Cream, Pink, Red, Aquamarine, Yellow)
Group 33 - Antique (30 ITEMS) + Bears (21) Colors are Black, Brown, Natural Items in each color are bed, bureau, chair, clock, console table, mini table, phone, table, vanity, wardrobeItems in each color are bed, chair, DIY table, floor lamp, music player, sofa, tea table, vanity, wall-mounted clock, wardrobe 6 Baby Bear (Caramel Mocha, Checkered, Choco, Cream, Floral, Tweed) 1 Baby Panda 6 Mama Bears (Caramel Mocha, Checkered, Choco, Cream, Floral, Tweed) 1 Mama Panda 6 Papa Bear (Caramel Mocha, Checkered, Choco, Cream, Floral, Tweed) 1 Papa Panda
Group 34 - Plants - (39 ITEMS) 5 Anthurium Plant (Black, Brown, Light Blue, Pink, White) 1 Cacao Tree 5 Cat Grass (Black, Light Blue, Pink, Red, White) 5 Cypress Plant (Black, Blue, Brown, White, Yellow) 6 Fan Palm (Black, Blue, Brown, Green, Red, White) 4 Floating Biotope Planter (Artistic, Black, Brown, White) 1 Mini-Cactus Set 6 Monstera (Black, Blue, Brown, Red, White, Yellow) 1 Moss Ball 5 Yucca (Black, Blue, Brown, Green, White)
Group 35 - Fabrics - (47 ITEMS) 6 Automatic Washer (Black, Blue, Green, Pink, White, Yellow) 2 Clothesline Pole (Blue, Silver) 6 Deluxe Washer (Black, Blue, Pink, Red, White, Yellow) 4 Drying Rack (Black, Ivory, Silver, White) 1 ironing board 1 Ironing Set 1 loom 3 Old Sewing Machine (Black, Green, Silver) 3 Pants Press (Black, Brown, Gray) 7 Sewing Machine (Black, Blue, Green, Pink, Red, White, Yellow) 6 Sewing Project (Black, Blue, Green, Ivory, Pink, Yellow) 1 Spinning Wheel 6 Sturdy Sewing Box (Black, Brown, Dark Brown, Natural, Navy Blue, White)
submitted by mikikaoru to ACTrade [link] [comments]


2020.06.09 02:30 dmartin-ames June 9, 2020 Ames City Council topics

June 9, 2020 Ames City Council topics
Hi ames,
As you read the agenda preview below, you might ask: where's the Council's response to the grotesque and infuriating killings of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor, and Ahmaud Arbery and the local and national protests and reform movements?
Of course, the Mayor, Council members, and City staff have all been following the news and forming opinions on their own. Mayor Haila released a statement on May 30 condemning the reckless disregard for life and reminding us of shared ideals. Yet this will be our first Council meeting since the recent protests began on May 26. Since Council doesn't deliberate together outside of legally announced meetings, we'll literally just be getting started with this conversation in terms of Ames policies. In situations like this, a typical first action might be to vote on adding the topic to a future Council agenda for conversation. You read that right—for Council-initiated topics, before talking about something substantial, we usually vote on whether to talk about it... at a future meeting.
Fortunately, rather than leaving it to Council's typical two-weeks-between-every-step-of-conversation schedule, the Ames NAACP Branch, Mayor, and City have taken action on their own and have arranged a series of four town hall meetings under the heading Taking the Lead 2020. The first meeting is this week, Thursday June 11 at 6pm on Zoom on the topic of Policing and Justice, featuring questions for panelists ISU VP for Diversity and Inclusion Dr. Reginald Stewart, Ames Police Chief Charles Cychosz, and ISU Police Chief Michael Newton. Topics are to include policies, processes, accountability, and communication practices within our local police departments. Click here for instructions on accessing this Thursday meeting. (Also, if you haven't accessed a Zoom meeting before, you might want to read the general instructions on how to access City Zoom meetings—including how to call in with a plain old telephone or just watch online.)
I'm very grateful to the NAACP and the Mayor and City for taking the initiative to arrange these town hall meetings. In my opinion, the fact that they're being arranged collaboratively expands their reach into the community well beyond what Council agendas or workshops alone would be able to accomplish. And listening to the community is a great first step for us. I hope you will attend.
On to the regular agenda. The Ames City Council meets on Tuesday at 6:00 p.m. on Zoom. The agenda includes:
https://preview.redd.it/2nud4grh4s351.png?width=1024&format=png&auto=webp&s=de80925e26cbb255e0ed51bf0b7f099e2eb6f7bb
  • 32. Hearing on Second Substantial Amendment to CDBG 2019/20 Annual Action Plan. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development notified the City of Ames that it will receive a special allocation of Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) funds in the amount of $354,515 to be used to prevent, prepare for, and respond to the coronavirus. In May, Council asked staff to draft an amendment to our CDBG plan to designate these funds for relief in rent, mortgage payments, and/or utilities to those who are impacted by COVID-19. Tonight, Council will hold a public hearing and vote whether to adopt the amendment or not. If we do adopt the amendment, the City will formulate more precise parameters and rules for participation in this program.
Non-Agenda Packet: The following items are requests and communications to the council that are not on the agenda for full discussion. This includes staff reports and communications or requests from constituents and developers. Typically the council will ask city staff for more information (a memo), put the item on a future agenda for deliberation and possible action, or just accept the communication, taking no further action. Council generally processes these requests and communications during the agenda portion called "Disposition of Communications to Council."
Thanks for reading. David Martin, Ames City Council, Ward 3
submitted by dmartin-ames to ames [link] [comments]


2020.06.06 11:26 acronis95 Script is doing something weird and I don't understand why

Hey I'm just creating my own script that auto-downloads my podcasts for me. But I'm having issues with the megaphone ones. I can run python in PS individually it's fine but as a script it doesn't seem to download the xml file. anyway below is the script and files:
import re import os import requests f=open(".Podcasts.txt","r") for x in f: s=requests.get(x) print(x) open('rsstemp.txt','wb').write(s.content) mp3='' name='' searchterm=re.compile("\n.*?(.*)", re.MULTILINE) one=(re.search(searchterm,open("rsstemp.txt").read())) if one: name=one.group(1) print(name) searchterm=re.compile(".*?
Here is ".Podcasts.txt"
https://www.abc.net.au/radio/programs/am/feed/8863540/podcast.xml https://www.abc.net.au/radio/programs/pm/feed/8863592/podcast.xml https://www.abc.net.au/radio/programs/worldtoday/feed/8547556/podcast.xml https://feeds.megaphone.fm/vergecast https://feeds.megaphone.fm/pivot 
Here is what "rsstemp.txt" should look like:
    The Vergecast https://www.theverge.com/the-vergecast en © 2019 Vox Media, Inc. All Rights Reserved Hello! This is The Vergecast, the flagship podcast of The Verge... and your life. Every Friday, Nilay Patel and Dieter Bohn make sense of the week's tech news with help from our wide-ranging staff. And on Tuesdays, Nilay hosts in-depth, one-on-one interviews with major technology leaders. Join us every week for a fun, deeply nerdy, often off-the-rails conversation about what's happening now (and next) in technology and gadgets.  https://images.megaphone.fm/TxQGmVHSJLu_4SfqdsIT1uUQ2xrv7XAS3oixU70WYD4/plain/s3://megaphone-prod/podcasts/e4c412e6-e1f0-11e8-9bde-83f9d376f059/image/uploads_2F1567105071975-o6k62rq8bin-247a9596590486c06b16976bed1cefbc_2FVergecast_Tile_3000x3000.png The Vergecast https://www.theverge.com/the-vergecast  episodic What’s new and next in tech The Verge Hello! This is The Vergecast, the flagship podcast of The Verge... and your life. Every Friday, Nilay Patel and Dieter Bohn make sense of the week's tech news with help from our wide-ranging staff. And on Tuesdays, Nilay hosts in-depth, one-on-one interviews with major technology leaders. Join us every week for a fun, deeply nerdy, often off-the-rails conversation about what's happening now (and next) in technology and gadgets.  ]]>   Vox Media Podcast Network [email protected]        https://feeds.megaphone.fm/vergecast  SpaceX launches humans to space / Facebook's ongoing moderation controversy / Sonos Arc's convincing surround sound Stories from this episode: Blaming protesters for COVID-19 spread ignores the bigger threats to health 5G coronavirus conspiracy theorists are endangering the workers who keep networks running Telehealth wasn’t designed for non-English speakers The pandemic has made it harder to buy a new laptop Byte flight The United States will cut ties with the World Health Organization, says President Trump FCC extends deadline for ISPs to quit charging customers who use their own equipment K-pop stans overwhelm app after Dallas police ask for videos of protesters SpaceX successfully launches first crew to orbit, ushering in new era of spaceflight A rocket launch can’t unite us until the space world acknowledges our divisions Watch NASA astronauts fly SpaceX’s Crew Dragon using touchscreens SpaceX’s Crew Dragon successfully docks with the space station What the future of the space station looks like after SpaceX’s historic launch Meet the cute stuffed dinosaur that hitched a ride on SpaceX’s historic launch SpaceX is launching its latest batch of internet satellites, including one with a visor Trump’s Twitter order violates the First Amendment, new lawsuit claims Facebook won’t take any action on Trump’s post about shootings in Minnesota Facebook employees walk out in protest of Donald Trump’s posts Twitter takes action against Rep. Matt Gaetz for glorifying violence In leaked audio, Mark Zuckerberg expressed ‘disgust’ with Trump’s posts Mark Zuckerberg defends hands-off Trump policy to employees after walkout Nine things we learned from leaked audio of Mark Zuckerberg facing his employees Ban them all What other social networks can learn from Snapchat’s rebuke of Trump Huawei P40 Pro review: there’s a catch HBO Max won’t hit AT&T data caps, but Netflix and Disney Plus will The Sonos Arc puts convincing surround sound in a single soundbar Here’s our best look yet at Google’s new Android TV streaming device Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Fri, 05 Jun 2020 08:00:00 -0000 full 408 The Verge Nilay Patel and Dieter Bohn talk to senior science reporter Loren Grush about SpaceX successfully launching their first crew to orbit. Casey Newton stops by to discuss Facebook's moderation policy controversy with Donald Trump's posts. Stories from this episode: Blaming protesters for COVID-19 spread ignores the bigger threats to health 5G coronavirus conspiracy theorists are endangering the workers who keep networks running Telehealth wasn’t designed for non-English speakers The pandemic has made it harder to buy a new laptop Byte flight The United States will cut ties with the World Health Organization, says President Trump FCC extends deadline for ISPs to quit charging customers who use their own equipment K-pop stans overwhelm app after Dallas police ask for videos of protesters SpaceX successfully launches first crew to orbit, ushering in new era of spaceflight A rocket launch can’t unite us until the space world acknowledges our divisions Watch NASA astronauts fly SpaceX’s Crew Dragon using touchscreens SpaceX’s Crew Dragon successfully docks with the space station What the future of the space station looks like after SpaceX’s historic launch Meet the cute stuffed dinosaur that hitched a ride on SpaceX’s historic launch SpaceX is launching its latest batch of internet satellites, including one with a visor Trump’s Twitter order violates the First Amendment, new lawsuit claims Facebook won’t take any action on Trump’s post about shootings in Minnesota Facebook employees walk out in protest of Donald Trump’s posts Twitter takes action against Rep. Matt Gaetz for glorifying violence In leaked audio, Mark Zuckerberg expressed ‘disgust’ with Trump’s posts Mark Zuckerberg defends hands-off Trump policy to employees after walkout Nine things we learned from leaked audio of Mark Zuckerberg facing his employees Ban them all What other social networks can learn from Snapchat’s rebuke of Trump Huawei P40 Pro review: there’s a catch HBO Max won’t hit AT&T data caps, but Netflix and Disney Plus will The Sonos Arc puts convincing surround sound in a single soundbar Here’s our best look yet at Google’s new Android TV streaming device Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices   
Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
]]>
6698
and this is what it is when I run it:
  404 Not Found  
This is the error I get: (UPDATE 1.)
file with .mp3 Traceback (most recent call last): File "1.py", line 25, in  doc=requests.get(mp3) File "C:\Python27\lib\site-packages\requests\api.py", line 76, in get return request('get', url, params=params, **kwargs) File "C:\Python27\lib\site-packages\requests\api.py", line 61, in request return session.request(method=method, url=url, **kwargs) File "C:\Python27\lib\site-packages\requests\sessions.py", line 516, in request prep = self.prepare_request(req) File "C:\Python27\lib\site-packages\requests\sessions.py", line 459, in prepare_request hooks=merge_hooks(request.hooks, self.hooks), File "C:\Python27\lib\site-packages\requests\models.py", line 314, in prepare self.prepare_url(url, params) File "C:\Python27\lib\site-packages\requests\models.py", line 388, in prepare_url raise MissingSchema(error) requests.exceptions.MissingSchema: Invalid URL '': No schema supplied. Perhaps you meant http://? 

any help would be appreciated
submitted by acronis95 to learnpython [link] [comments]


2020.05.14 17:34 petersobolev From four to thirty two. Early years of computers and networks in Russia. Part II

Part II: From sixteen to thirty two
(for part I see previous post)
Still no networks
The very peak of "Perestroyka" (1990-1991) coincided with the end of my epoch of using 8-bit computers. That was the time the very first IBM PCs were imported into the country, but no one understood why. Luckily for me, I had a friend that started a joint venture with a USA company. He received a PC AT 286 20MHz 1Mb computer with CGA monitor and Star 9-pin dot matrix printer directly from the USA. My friend had no experience or knowledge to operate this computer and this was an expected situation for early PC adopters back then. The computer itself was in very advanced configuration – PC AT 286 20MHz at the time when even PC XT was still considered as a very good option. The weakest part of that computer was the CGA video adapter – it could only do 4 horrible colors at a very low resolution of 320x200 which was very limiting. Anyway, exploring MS DOS operating system was interesting and entertaining enough on its own.
Soon after I failed twice entry exams to the Leningrad Polytechnical University (it was for good because I would have been flunked anyway) I started working as a laboratory technician in the department of Computer Science of Leningrad Institute of Fine Mechanics and Optics (IFMO). At those times IFMO still didn't have its current status - there almost weren't any computers, except for the huge PDP-11 clone "SM-4", some Iskra-226 and a very few PCs.
My workplace was on the third floor where we had five MERA SM 7209 terminals. Our in-house computer gurus enhanced them to the level of more or less self-sufficient computers with z80 CPU, 128 K RAM and Bulgarian-made floppy disk drives. The students were rarely seen to be using those for anything but typing in some machine codes and using a primitive debuggemonitor. Such computers were not very reliable because of memory refresh issues. The probability of losing the entire program that took half an hour to type in was high. Students were trying to identify and share the most reliable memory ranges specific to a particular computer.
The computer laboratory technician position required me to solder back the failing equipment cables and prevent taking any further damage to the computers from students, especially when there was no university staff around. I spent my available time with an "Iskra 1030" computer. It was not a very successful clone of PC XT 4.7 Mhz with 512 kb of RAM and CGA video adapter. The next room was home to "Iskra 226" – a massive steel box similar to the Wang-2200 computer with BASIC interpreter. Strangely enough, your hand would get cold whilst working with this computer as there were not one but three powerful fans blowing directly at the keyboard. My experience with those computers was driven by curiosity rather than a practical purpose.
There was another lab technician in our department. He was responsible for the equipment in the room at the same floor but at the farthest side of the university building, we called that side "old block". Also, he was playing music in a heavy metal rock band which and the only time we had a chance to chat was monthly refuse disposal activities. The other days he could lock himself in the room to make himself busy with something very peculiar – those activities would force him to run across into the toilet "to hide from the crocodiles that were following him".
Meanwhile, I had full access to Iskra-1030 and Pravets-16. Pravets-16 arrived a bit later and was a clone of PC XT 4.7 Mhz with 640 kb of RAM and CGA video adapter. It was a better implementation than Iskra. Both of the computers were supplied with 10 or 20 megabytes HDDs with DOS v3.30. Most popular software existed only for DOS. Latest version of Windows was 2.0, it was awful and ran from the DOS too. It was impossible to imagine that Windows would become popular in just a few years.
DOS was an inevitable choice for the PCs of those years, and it had positive and negative aspects. Firstly, the pure DOS appeared as a very inconvenient way to start programs and manage files for a regular user. On the other hand, there were more and more various utilities helping to deal with those routine operations. There was Norton Commander file manager and its blue two-sided panels were the icons of that epoch, especially in Russia. The single-task nature of DOS was addressed in DesqView, that allowed switching between a number of running applications even using XT computer. The variety of small "resident" programs provided instant access to the calculator, notebook and similar functionality. All in all, it was possible to create and adjust the comfortable working environment. The viruses of that time were easy to detect and eliminate with popular antivirus software like Aidstest. The diversity and the speed of virus programs distribution was pretty easy to control, assuming the only way they could spread were the floppy disks.
I knew that computer networks existed in some research institutes and specialized establishments, but my knowledge was solely of theoretical nature. I saw a modem in the flesh just a couple of times. Even so, the overall situation with software supply was generally better than Commodore 64. More people purchased PCs and there were plenty of ways to exchange software. Computer piracy was not a big thing back then. No one would even bother tracking pirates down as there was no general understanding why copying some programs could be a bad idea. Of course, in reality we understood everything thanks to all of those sub-culture connections and scenes.
Radioelectronics Lyceum SPTU-38 was one of the biggest and most popular software exchange locations in St.Petersburg. Because of its cult status it really deserves to have a commemorative panel on the building itself. This SPTU had a large computer classroom with a couple dozens of Yamaha MSX-II. Those computers were not so popular already, mostly because of several PCs on the other side of the classroom. The PCs were of quite decent type – mostly 286s or even 386s. They were always occupied by people coding in Turbo C, Watcom C (just C, no pluses) or even in Prologue computer language. There was a metal box full of 5.25" and 3.5" floppy disks next to the one of the PCs. It was the equivalent of a modern data-center of considerable capacity.
There was a procedure of working with this archive. We would approach and do a polite and quiet greeting. The person using the computer would ask "what you've got?" in the most incautious manner. We were hesitant to present our floppy disks which were quickly taken and put into a disk drive. The person would check the contents of those disks with no visible interest. We were really proud if any of our files or archives would be copied from our disks. When this ritual was complete, the person would usually allow us to use the computer and the box of floppy disks saying something like "just grab what you need". The box was nicely organized, and the disks had labels with contents description. Still, it took some time to get around that collection. Some of the programs, like compilers with all its libraries, would take up to 10 different disks and the copying process wasn't quick in general. Even so, each visit would enrich us with such a number of programs and tools that it would take weeks to get through all of them. The copied programs were valuable assets for further software exchange in other locations.
A friend of mine had his own Tandy-1000. It was an IBM PCjr clone – similar to PC XT, but with 320x200x16 video mode and enhanced audio capabilities, well, compared to a regular PC beeper. The biggest issue came in a form of monochrome display capabilities in shades of black and green. It wasn't a big problem for 16-color requiring games, they would start and work perfectly. That was a time when Sierra made quests were really popular: Space Quest, Hero Quest, and Larry.
Meanwhile in IFMO I got PC AT 286 with EGA and Amstrad PC1640 (similar to PC XT with EGA Mono) as a replacement of Pravets. By that time I was skilled in x86 Assembler and Turbo Pascal programming as well as in PC hardware. However, in neglecting my responsibilities and work attitude I matched my above mentioned colleague from the old block. The only difference was that damage caused by taken substances was in a different league compared to the damages done to me by computers.
This quality of our work was best characterized by the fact that after we left those positions a year later, there was no need in this position altogether. As far as I heard – there were no objections.
I tried to enter IFMO the next year, but my score was below the acceptance threshold for the Computer Science department. Instead, I got myself into a brand new Mechatronics department (Mechanics + Electronics, literally) in 1991. We had applied mathematics practical studies using SM-4 every month. I remember having no good feelings about that noisy wonder with scattered flashing lights separated by a glass wall. We had to use terminals to write a simple Fortran program implementing a mathematical model. The compilation process would require closing source code editor TED and running two other programs which usually took minutes. Everything was so slow in general, SM-4 resources were inadequate to work with a dozen of terminals, on top of that the system crashes required to start over with the source code from time to time.
A single class was enough to understand that I am not willing to come back there again. Still, I had to persuade my teacher that I've got the Fortran language knowledge and experience. I started to search for the way to get out of this situation by getting through a Fortran book. It wasn't a reading as such, just browsing. There was an idea to write a Turbo Pascal program that performed all required calculations and to print the listing of that program with all Pascal keywords replaced with Fortran ones. This is what I tried to bring to my teacher. Unsurprisingly, he was very confused and surprised. It was clear and obvious that such a Fortran program would not work at all, even if it was written using a PC computer. The most discouraging was to see the working program printing the correct results. The deception was of the highest quality and my Fortran teacher, apparently, wasn't all that confident in his Fortran knowledge. To make things even trickier I told him a story about a new dialect of Arity Fortran which I made up of recently released Arity Prolog. This little fraud ended well and everything was accepted.
The situation with computer availability continued to improve. First of all, I obtained my first PC-compatible home computer – SM-1810.13 "Nivka". It was a PC XT 4.7Mhz 640 kb RAM CGA video adapter computer assembled with soviet components in a massive "full tower" computer case. Video card and the processor were original components but the system bus was not standard and could not accept extension cards. It had a sound of a jet plane taking off all thanks to not one but four powerful mains voltage operated fans. It did not take me long to increase the CPU clock speed to 10MHz. The only known side-effect was a disk drive controller chip ejecting himself from PCB which I fixed with teeing it down with some threads. Not long after that I got a PC AT 286 with EGA and consecutively VGA video cards. The computer upgrade process by boards and adapters replacement was quite popular. Those days I spent a lot of time after the classes or even instead of my classes in the Computer Science department at IFMO. There were two IBM PS/2 Model 30 (PC 286 with MCGA video adapter and microchannel bus), few PC AT 286, and the fastest computer I saw at that time – PC AT 386SX running at 16Mhz with VGA adapter. I remember the attempts to install the OS/2 operating system on that machine. OS/2 version 1.0 was still a joint development effort of Microsoft and IBM.
It was around 1992 when I discovered FidoNet...
FidoNet and BBS
I had an unused modem for quite a while. It was in this "unused" state mainly down to two reasons. First of all, I had no one to connect to. On top of that it was an acoustic modem. This type of modem would require a phone handset to be connected to the modem using rubber sealed speaker and microphone outlets of the modem itself. The connection was established by using controls and buttons of the host phone itself. I will reveal no secret by saying I have never managed to connect to anyone using this modem. The first modem that had a practical meaning was 1200 baud modem without MNP error correction protocol support. It was a full-size ISA board that required an active fan cooling for a reliable operation.
FidoNet was nothing like contemporary Internet. There are massive technological and organizational differences. Since the very start it was volunteer-driven network of "nodes" connected with each other in different towns and even countries. So-called "SysOps" (short for System Operator) had arrangements on data transfer, text electronic mail exchange, user base management, and resolving conflicts. There was no membership cost and large nodes could be deployed in large companies that would actually foot the phone calls bill. Sometimes, it would include international calls as well. Any attempts to commercialize the FidoNet were terminated apart from some designated echo-conferences to buy and sell some hardware.
Echo-conference (or "echo" for short) was a main thing in FidoNet. I would describe it as a collection of global-size topic-driven forums. In contrast to the Internet, such forums could not have a dedicated owner, but rather had its own life within a network. Moderators were usually assigned by forum creators and managed the behaviour of participants and checked the content. To coordinate mail and echomail transfer as well as to warn or even excommunicate people who broke the rules there were network and regional coordinators and echo coordinators.
Technologically wise a typical FidoNet station was a computer connected to a phone line via modem and specialist software. It was a requirement to accept the other nodes' inbound connections at least for an hour within a day to do electronic mail exchange. More often, such stations used to be available during the night time when no people used the phone line; while the stations deployed in large companies could operate 24/7.
FidoNet used to have hundreds of active nodes and countless number of "points" at its height in the USSR. "Points" were managed by nodes through which they had access to electronic mail. That situation with the scale and efficiency of management was unique – such success was never seen in Europe or the USA. FidoNet was different from the Internet for being not only the data transfer network but for being a society of people brought together by some basic democratic values allowing this network to exist. The mechanisms of those values' implementation were of a very pragmatic nature. Everything was designed to have a robust and reliable electronic mail exchange and to make sure that echo-conferences work as they should. All the proposed document alterations and changes were widely discussed and voted by Sysops. The same approach was used to elect system coordinators.
You needed nothing else but a computer with modem and configured software to get connected to FidoNet. Some of the FidoNet users improvised with electronic mail exchange using floppy disks – this rare sight was nicknamed "floppynet". The minimum level of computer knowledge required to set up computers and software was the most powerful filter to leave all of those occasional and random people outside the network. Most of the FidoNet users were in IT anyway, although there were non-technical background enthusiasts that wanted to discover this network and society. This type of semi-open society allowed to build a certain trust within users of FidoNet.
At the same time there was a version of an offline Internet called Relcom similar to the name of the largest provider. It was quite popular in companies and had newsgroups similar to echo-conferences. Those newsgroups were managed not in the best way and it was reflected in the quality of content too. It could be the lack of this natural filter as for FidoNet or absence of organized structure of echo-coordinators. It was a paid relationship between companies and providers which resulted in a mixture of spam and offtopic that no one could really stop. FidoNet users debated a lot about allowing the data exchange between certain FidoNet gateway nodes and such newsgroups.
FidoNet participation had a footprint in real life too. For example, it could be considered as a positive employment reference if an applicant was a FidoNet user. Also, the rumor had it - if the share of FidoNet users in one given company would exceed a certain number - the company is doomed and will eventually collapse. On top of that it was common to mention that you are a FidoNet user to get a discount or additional services in computer hardware shops.
FidoNet coordinators were often well-known people in the real world. I remember the COMTEK exhibitions in Moscow in the late 90s. Those events were among other things informal meetings events for SysOps from Russia and ex-USSR states. They were gathering there in impressive numbers - just imagine a few thousands for people in a single square. One day, a car with someone important inside tried to use the shortcut across that square instead of going all the way around it. The car was moving slowly through the crowd while beeping and flashing lights. It managed to get to the middle of the square where was our regional FidoNet coordinator. I was talking to him that very moment when the car appeared high behind him. He glanced at my face looking behind him and instead of moving away he just waited and when the car literally touched him - he sat on a bonnet. The bodyguards jumped out of the car and took a menacing stance. It wasn't a smartest move as the other people got closer and decided to take part in this confrontation. The bodyguards were smart enough to see the size of the crowd around and finally they retreated in the car which moved back.
Bulletin Board System - or BBS for short coexisted with FidoNet those years. Those systems were hosted on the same computers as FidoNet stations and people often mixed those two in this country. BBS was different from FidoNet. While FidoNet station was a system to exchange electronic mail, the BBS allowed online access to the computer itself - contemporary telnet is the nearest thing. Anyone could call the phone number of BBS and start downloading files, read mail, or talk to sysop after logging in. The users were valued and ranked by sysops which would give them different connection time allowances and download limits. The user value would depend on the amount and quality of shared software or how well the administrator knows the user himself. The phone line impose a connection limit of a single user at a time, while the rest of the users would be dialing in repeatedly trying to connect. Finally, the active user would hit the time limit or the line would be dropped by the modem.
The connection was established by a terminal program. This program would control modem via serial port by sending commands like dial the phone number: 'ATPD123' or change the connection speed or protocol. It was common to keep the modem speaker turned on to control the connection status or to hear if another person picked up the phone. The modem would generate a noise-like connection sequence to synchronize connection parameters with the remote modem, people would even recognize connection parameters listening to those sounds. Sound would be turned off on successful connection and the user would see a connection confirmation in the terminal - something like 'CONNECT 2400/MNP'.
My home phone line was occupied by SkyNet Station BBS for a long time. It was really unusual and very interesting to talk to all those unknown callers from other towns and even countries. Some of them used "Iskra-2" (alternative industry-sponsored communication lines). Because FidoNet/BBS stations' working time was from midnight to early morning, I often crashed out in some vulnerable moments during my classes in university. During the first and second course such an attitude to the study wasn't appropriate, but I was lucky.
Foreign BBS were one of the main sources to get new software, quite usually it was pirate software or warez. Those days the international calls were expensive, and people tried to use a company phone line to make them. Often, the company would not even know about such practices. Because of calls costs there were a variety of attempts to fool the system and make free calls. Unfortunately, the 'bluebox' tricks known in the West did not work with local phone stations. By the time one creative person managed to adopt this approach to make it work in Russia. Sadly, by then BBS became obsolete.
The phone lines of that period left much to be deserved to say the least. At first typical modems would rarely hit the speed of 2400bps - most of the time the practical transfer speed would be much lower. There was rumor that the theoretical limit was 9600bps. It is fair to say - at the same time were people claiming 33 MHz to be the highest achievable frequency for CPUs. Of course, all of those numbers were about to change.
The new generation of more sophisticated modems arrived which could adapt better for phone lines of bad quality. Some of those modems could efficiently use the phone lines not very suitable for regular voice calls. Telebit modems were implementing PEP and TurboPEP protocols that could get to 23000 bps. Those were rare but very noise tolerant. Zyxel (ZYX 19200bps) and US Robotics (HST 16800bps) modems were widespread. They supported the standard v32 (9600bps) and v32bis (14400bps) as well as their own higher speed protocols requiring compatible modems on both sides. The choice of Zyxel or US Robotics had a very religious taste to SysOps.
There was a curious story associated with HST protocol...
Initially, it was only supported in higher grade US Robotics Courier modems, and the cheaper model USR Sportster was released without HST support. A basic reverse engineering revealed that schematics of both modems are almost identical but firmware alterations wasn't enough to upgrade Sportster to Courier capabilities. There was rivalry and some kind of a competition between two people in St.Petersburg was started. The intensity of this competition was much like a war sometimes. I remember bringing my Sportster to one of those gurus. I was told to wait for a couple hours for him to perform the required updates which would involve nothing less than particle matter accelerators in one of the research institutes. Of course it wasn't true and everything was much more down to Earth.
The other guru could be found in Medical University in Karpovka street. There was a large room with a large computer case taken from an older ES (IBM System/360 clone) computer. Inside of the case there was a mattress where you could find the sleeping owner. The semi-opened fireproof box that contained computer and modem acting as node 2:5030/131 was aligned to the wall.
The file sizes and storage size requirements were growing fast due to increased transfer speeds. HDDs were expensive and not very reliable and CDs were nowhere to be seen. Once, I saw an optical disk video player at LKI ("Korabelka"). It was 1996, the disk was about 8" big and it had an analogue method of storing information. That is why it was popular to increase the floppy disk capacity using different tricks. The special software would allow you to write 800kb of data into 360kb-rated floppy disk using 720kb capable floppy disk drive and 1.2mb floppy disks could be upgraded to 1.4mb. While it was nice to get extra floppy disk space it did not solve the major problem. We still needed to store all the software we had to exchange and backup. Losing a copy of the program was not an option considering how much effort it would require to get a replacement. Modern approach "why do I need to keep it - I will download it when I need it" was unfeasible. One of the popular solutions was offered by a local company in Zelenograd. Arvid PC board would allow the use of a regular VHS player as a streamer. A single cassette would store up to 2Gb of data with all redundancy and error-correction codes. It was a very impressive capacity for those years while being affordable and reliable enough.
Hackers and the Demoscene
At that time, the IT labor market in Russia looked odd. There was a supply of high quality specialists with up to date IT knowledge but very limited demand for those positions. It was tricky for a good specialist to gain practical benefits. As a direct result - it was typical to see non-profit high complexity projects. Around that time movements took its shapes - the software hacking and the demoscene. They were closely related in the beginning similar to the world of Commodore 64, although for different reasons.
It all started with 'warez': commercial games, tools, and any software products obtained for free. Even before Internet arrival we had it all - you could download fresh software releases via special BBSes hosted in the USA and Europe. There was also IceNet - the international network designed to exchange the software technically similar to FidoNet. Almost every single IceNet station in Russia was running a FidoNet node on the same machine. The real names were forbidden to use and I created my first nickname 'coderipper' there. Actually, 'nickname' is a term brought by IRC, we used to have 'aliases' instead.
Many software products tried their best to protect themselves from illegal copying. A hacker would have to have an excellent knowledge for hardware, software and system level functions. There was nothing like contemporary IDA or virtualization tools, the target program would easily detect the presence of debuggers like AFD or Turbo Debugger. Additional tricks were incorporated in code itself to prevent the popular disassembler tools like Sourcer to work properly.
This valuable knowledge found its purpose in creating simple but nice looking graphic effects - fire effect or plasma. I decided to create a new FidoNet echo-conference DEMO.DESIGN in 1994. We exchanged the programming ticks, collected new effects and discussed the way to implement or optimize particular algorithms and effects.
It was inevitable to move from discussion on effects to have our first coding competitions. The tasks and challenges were pushing the limits of creativity and code optimization - for example, "implement triangle rasterization using the smallest code footprint" or to write a tiny piece of code of no longer than 128 bytes that would do a certain visual effect. Target platform was PC AT 80286 running DOS as the most widespread and common.
Early 90s was the time period of early demoparties. They started to appear in Scandinavian countries and gathered demosceners coding visual effects with music. Basically, it is all about non-interactive visual effects with music showing the author's skills in programming, extensive knowledge of software and hardware features and designed to impress with complexity, performance or visual appearance of generated animation. The demoparties were known in the late 80s but they were very localized due to the lack of networks and the not so legal nature of those events. Such demoparties used to exchange paid software and were pretty much "copy-parties". It all set to change with the Assembly demoparty held in Finland in 1992. This party is known because of the release of a hugely important 'Second Reality' demo and massive attendance figures of thousands of people from many countries.
Here, in Russia we saw it from a distance and due to the increasing activity in our DEMO.DESIGN conference we started thinking of having our own demoparty. It was August of 1995 when our group of friends with a couple sponsors hired the venue with equipment and Internet connection in Saint-Petersburg to make our first ever Russian demoparty - ENLiGHT'95. It was a massive success and we still keep it going every year as Chaos Constructions demoparty.
Sadly, not many pictures are available from those early years - the digital cameras were not around yet and no one could be bothered to bring in film cameras and prints. There are some VHS tapes which capture the spirit and atmosphere of those parties. We had no projector so we had to improvise with a couple of regular CRT TVs - nothing fancy. People gathered around, sat on the floor trying to see what was displayed. There were no laptops and the only computers available - three PC AT 486s along with Commodore Amiga and Commodore 64 were allocated exclusively for competition events and showcasing other demoscene releases. The voting was organized in written form on pieces of paper. Internet connection used to broadcast updates from the party over IRC.
The majority of releases were PC DOS based and were written either in Assembler and Turbo Pascal. As a good indication of the skill level of some participants I remember one of the participants used the demo music track written all by himself in the music sequencer (SoundWave tracker) that he created himself too. It did not stop there, his 3D visualization engine used polygonal models created in bespoke 3D modelling software he created himself again. Even by modern standards it is a massive effort and excellent skill set. Later, that demoscener went into the cryptographic technology industry.
Many developers were captivated by the idea of creating their own operating system. There was a very limited choice of general use operating systems around. Unix was so basic that many of the developers saw it as a pile of disconnected chips and boards instead of a fully operational computer. DOS and Windows 3.xx did not match expectations of the user and OS/2 was about to get to 'usable' state, granted you had a compatible computer too. Macs were hard to find and only a few lucky ones saw Macs in Russia at all.
We had different groups identifying and addressing the most important aspects of a modern operating system - from the distributed processing and data storage systems all the way to intermediate code capable of running on different hardware and software environments. There were many ideas of optimizing the performance for an average computer which at that time was pretty limited in resources.
Most of the operating system development discussion was in SPB.SYSPRG FidoNet echo-conference and regular offline meetings hosted by SysOp 2:5030/269 who was known for creating IBM/360 emulator for PC. There was no final OS product created as such - mostly due to the requirement to create device drivers for all existing variety of devices. That was a huge task on its own and it would require a massive team to support it. Still, it was an amazing and useful experience to get deeper into different architectures of available CPUs and design principles of existing operating systems. It really expanded our knowledge of computers and allowed us to see existing, new and 'so-called new' technologies from a very different point of view.
It should be mentioned here that apart from upgrading Sportsters into Couriers, SysOp of 2:5030/131 mentioned above created the RTS-386 system, that allowed a multiuser access with inexpensive terminals to a single PC AT 386. Every user would have a fully functional workplace in a Windows environment with graphics.
Sprint and Internet
One day my FidoNet friend sent me a message that he has access to the CompuServe network. Getting into CompuServe in St.Petersburg was similar to crossing the country border illegally. You were required to use the modem to call a well known phone number known only to the limited group of people. I still remember that phone number ending with '92' and can quote it at any time. The connection would require a symbol sequence to be typed in, then the login itself, the password and provide the details of a bank card. None of us had our own bank cards and the card details we were using came from a very dodgy source.
When the connection procedure was completed you could use a special DOS client application that allowed access to CompuServe features. The connection was very expensive and the time had to be used efficiently. I was downloading the new issues of Dr. Dobbs magazine and browsing Usenet groups.
Very soon the card details and logins were expired but we had a good taste of the network. Also, we have found that the phone number we used was a regional X.25 Sprint network access point. This network was used by large companies and banks to communicate with each other. While having direct access to a very powerful network we never had a slightest idea how to abuse it - it was just beyond of our interests. Some other people were trying to run a fraud using this system and quickly became a part of criminal chronicles in the news. We did not have any good description of what we can do while connected to the network but few issues of Phrack magazine hinted us that typing in numbers and keywords would eventually connect us with other remote computers. We were never successful in connecting to really interesting places or rarely had access rights to do anything at the remote computer. All in all it was an amazing experience to connect to American bank mainframe and chat to another stranger who got there the same way as you are, it was quite an adventure.
I will need to explain a bit more there. Most of those unauthorized or backdoor connections were made because of curiosity or examination of technical and security flaws, or just to show the skill level. There was no monetary gain involved at all. You could not even name yourself a hacker as it was something on par of calling yourself to be the smartest person in front of others.
The word "hacker" itself had no negative attitude and just indicated a skilled and dedicated person who did something just out of curiosity, for the sake of the process itself, not necessarily limited to the IT industry.
Of course, the FBI would chase those down disregarding if hackers were doing their activities for profit or not which was known since C64 episodes from the 80s. Still, those cases were rare in the West and literally non-existent in Russia. The local law enforcement had no legislation on that matter or even understanding what is supposed to be good and what is not.
I discovered the fully-featured Internet in a very specific environment. A friend of mine invited me to his workplace one evening in 1993. He was working in a company in 'New Holland' which had a legitimate Internet connection. While his personal workspace had no direct Internet connection it was possible to connect to the other computer at the office floor via LAN. That other computer was configured to connect to the Internet via dialup to KIAE Moscow. Needless to say we were not paying for those phone calls. Our first Internet experience at KIAE was Lynx - a text-only web browser. Also, we were quickly able to find how to start an IRC client which immediately asked us for a nickname. We needed to act fast and my second and much shorter nickname was generated there - "frog". It would be fair to say that our first Internet experience was very similar with Sprint experiments rather than modern Internet usage. Shortly after a number of local Internet providers appeared and there was no need to continue using those cumbersome and semi-legal ways to get to the Internet.
I saw my first web browser capable of displaying images and graphics in the office of Internet Service Provider 'Kaja' located in one of the basements close to the 'Rossiya' hotel. The Internet was taking over - the dial up connection was easy to get for doing a job for someone or by sharing someone's login. All of that brought me to a brief introduction to Unix...
Education system and research institutes started to develop their own networks. The subsidiary of Steklov Mathematical Institute used a grant to install Sun Classic running Solaris 2.0 and dedicated line Internet connection. We could use this system thanks to FidoNet friends but it was not as convenient as using the dial-up at home and we made to share this connection. We knew nothing about Unix but still managed to rebuild SunOS pppd to run on Solaris. In moments of desperation I also had tried to code on Sun Classic using Sparc assembler.
Palmtops
The mobile devices came from the West and became popular in Russia around 1997. The first devices were pretty basic - the smartphones like Nokia 2110, 3110, 6210 or Siemens ME45. They had a limited set of features - phone calls, a simplistic notebook, and calendar. The numeric keyboard was limiting the amount of text could be typed in too. The mobile computers similar to Apple Newton were very expensive and hard to find. The things changed for the better with the introduction of PalmPilot by US Robotics. It was an inexpensive pocket-sized computer with a stylus designed primarily to make notes.
In a brief period of time few of my friends bought PalmPilots. I bought mine too. All of us had plenty of questions about software development and hardware accessories. We started an informal 'The club of mobile device owners' and had weekly meetings in the 'Kronverk' company office close to the Tekhnologichesky Institut subway station. This particular company was famous for hosting a large FidoNet node - 2:5030/2 and the Sysop of that node was elected twice as network coordinator.
The news about our club spread quickly. At that time there were no other clubs like ours and we saw more people coming with other mobile devices - PocketPC, Palm, Newton, Psion and other more exotic models. Our club was active for several years with weekly meetings at the History of Arts Institute. The active part of the club ceased to exist when all information and software became easy to get online. Nevertheless, people were coming to discuss general IT tops or just to have a good time in the company of friends.
Technology-driven clubs and societies either transformed into commercial projects or disappeared altogether as a result of widespread adoption of Internet, mobile devices and generally better access to information altogether.
The skilled IT jobs started to be paid well. People famous for doing projects of high complexity started to enjoy a proper compensation for their efforts. Money was set to become a decisive factor of choosing what to do in IT. Low level development survives in a limited number of applications and everything else becomes much less a creative process but rather an industrial scale routine job. Everyone has a computer or smartphone connected to the Internet these days - it requires no extraordinary skills to get information today. The only limits you can do online are usually the ones set by the legal system. It was all expected to see, but also it makes everything about computers to feel so ordinary. By removing those perils and challenges of early computers and networks we have lost that odd romantic feel about it.
I am curious what would be the next Big Thing, the technological breakthrough that will rival the arrival of computers and global networks?
Peter Sobolev March, 2017 St.Petersburg, Russia [email protected]
(English translation published in May, 2020)
submitted by petersobolev to historyofcomputers [link] [comments]


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